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The university as a catalyst in innovation district development

 

Abstract

In this paper, we focus on the role of universities in innovation districts. Regarding the growing interest in innovation districts, the question arises if an innovation district can do without a university. Or, the other way round, can a university campus be a good starting point for an innovation district? Can an innovation district be successful without a university? In which way can a university function as a catalyst in innovation district development?

 The outcomes of research and recent developments suggest that it is relevant to have a university or an annexe of a university in an innovation district, as distance does matter. However, there are yet no hard research outcomes that make it clear that the success of an innovation district is dependent upon a university. Apart from that, the cases described here, in short, suggest that the establishment of a university or annexe can help the development of an innovation district by creating trust and contributing to a positive image of the development.

 

Introduction

Looking at different types of innovation areas[1] a distinction can be made in four crucial drivers:

  • networks & community,
  • entrepreneurial dynamism,
  • infrastructure & facilities and
  • a comprehensive business case (figure 1).

Until the 1990s there has been a strong focus on the physical aspects, mostly real estate, when developing innovative working environments. This focus was typical for the first decades of the, quite often mono-functional, science & technology park (STP) concept. Nowadays we very clearly understand that developing an STP or another type of innovation area is not (solely) a real estate operation. We – and others – like to stress the importance of the functional linkages between companies, institutions and universities enforced by strong management of these networks. The added value of an innovation area is in these networks, but also in the creation of a working environment that stimulates creativity. Altogether also known as the ‘software’.

So, in today’s innovation areas, the development of a knowledge network of companies and institutions is essential. The same goes for the creation of a community (which is more focused on personnel, organising activities and an excellent working environment). All together this forms the ecosystem. Although this doesn’t alter the fact that ultimately businesses and institutions located in the innovation areas also need modern real estate, adaptive infrastructure and attractive public spaces. Given this, specific requirements can be placed on buildings, particularly respecting the needs for community building and networking. For instance, pedestrian flows, the creation of meeting points, the concentration of catering and restaurant facilities where pedestrian flows meet, creative work environments, etc. For the successful management of any area of innovation, it is crucial that the different layers in the social-spatial structure of a site or area are recognised and respected: the networks, the infrastructure and the buildings.

But first of all, the ‘guests’ in the estate (companies, institutions, others) are central. In many cases it can be observed that one guest is ‘leading’ or – better said – is considered to be the ‘anchor’ of the development. That is often a university in the case of an STP and – per definition – a large, innovative company in the case of an industrial innovation campus. But what about the upcoming innovation districts? The available literature points out that in general one has the opinion that a successful innovation district needs at least one anchor firm or institution. This can be a research university, another institution working in the field of research and innovation or a (large) company.

Figure 1: IADP-model to create a successful R&D work environments (www.iadp.co)Schema nieuw 2018

The leading question for this paper

Given the great importance of innovation and the exchange of information between stakeholders involved, (research) universities and leading, innovative firms probably plays a crucial role in the development of innovation districts. “Probably” because, as far as we know, there are not yet research outcomes available that make clear what exactly that impact can be. Until now it is more about expectations.

In this paper, we particularly focus on the role of universities in innovation districts. These districts are characterised by their embeddedness in the city, innovation, a dynamic mix of functions and good public transport. It seems that for a growing number of firms and institutions, active in the fields of science and innovation, the innovation district is the working environment of the future. Such an environment might also (or maybe specifically) attract the millennials in the war for talent. Given the link of STPs with universities, this raises the question if an innovation district can be successful without a university in the district? Or, in case of an already established university or university institution: can such a university be the starting point for an innovation district?

The latter question is posed by the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This university is very well established in the city with three of their four sites located in Amsterdam. An ‘interconnected concentration’ of specialised clusters, which together constitute a network of knowledge and individually function as catalysts for their immediate surroundings. One of these clusters is situated in the inner city, and the university intends to create an innovation quarter (‘University Quarter’) here, consisting of university buildings and the surrounding area. It is the opinion of this university that a modern university is no longer an ‘ivory tower’. It stands in the middle of society and in front of that society and is a crucial member of a modern, knowledge-oriented society. Against this background, the question arises how the University Quarter can be turned into a success. The aim is to create added value to the university, the environment and the city and what role the University Quarter plays in this respect. Also, the surrounding area is important to the university: the space between the different buildings, but also between the clusters, needs to stimulate the interaction between inhabitants, students, companies and knowledge institutions. At the sub local level (University Quarter), that space must also provide a pleasant working environment that stimulates creativity and innovation. The key question is: how can we shape this area into a successful whole, involving all stakeholders and stimulating innovation?

In this paper, we will focus on the question of which way a university can function as a catalyst in innovation district development. To get a preliminary answer to this question we have used the available literature, news items and some interviews with representatives of universities in existing innovation districts.

Relevant trends

Many different developments have been recognised that, positively or negatively, elucidate the growing interest in and success of innovation districts. At IADP we think that the following main trends are relevant.

A response to the trend of deconcentration – In Europe in the sixties of the 20th century, apart from some centuries old universities (Cambridge for example), many universities tended to concentrate their activities in areas at the edge of the city where sufficient space was available. The upcoming phenomena of STPs at that time and the link these parks sought with the university also led to favouring isolated areas at the edge of the city. For both developments, STPs and universities, there is growing criticism about this spatial pattern and the way it functions. Too mono-functional, too much focussed on car accessibility, too far away from the inner city, not well connected with or embedded in the city, and so on. Some STPs try to find solutions for the problem (if it is perceived as a problem) by developing living quarters on the park, which also helps to ease the threshold for facilities and services in the park itself.

Companies are looking for ‘density’ – It seems that the aforementioned developments of STPs have stimulated the rise of innovation districts. The changing functions of inner cities and the mass re-allocation of traditional industries from the inner cities and surrounding old quarters give room for new developments such as innovation districts. Innovation economies reward urban density because of the agglomeration effects. Open innovation stresses the importance of working in close proximity, being able to share ideas rather than invent in isolation.

Companies are revaluing vibrancy and authenticity in (inner) cities – This trend is an extension of the former one. It is well-known that artists, people working in creative industries and researchers value a sense of place, including coffee shops, art galleries, and so on. A work environment that encourages creativity and innovation, and offers a balance between life, work and play. This is more important for millennials, which is an important target group for innovative companies and research universities in their competition to get the best talent.

Cross-overs instead of specialisation – In the worlds of innovation and areas of innovation the clustering of companies and institutions working in the same field was the adage for a long time and still is. On some STPs, we see a shift in the concept from specialisation towards crossovers. We have the impression that it is expected that especially the innovation district can offer the right environment for a functional mix of innovative companies and institutions and hence an environment or a seedbed very well suited for crossovers.

When looking at the possible (anchor) role of a university in an innovation district the following two trends might be relevant:

The ‘opening up’ of the university – According to Goddard & Valance (2013) universities have to become civic universities, meaning that they have to turn into an urban ‘anchor’ institution, being of significant importance to the economy and the wider community life of the cities in which they are based. Or, as Goddard & Valance put it, institutions that are of the city not just in the city. Universities try to do this in different ways by appointing innovation officers (linked to the industry), setting up incubator centres, organising specific education programs for the city population, and so on. The ‘opening up’ is sometimes also stimulated by taking the initiative to settle between the population in an innovation district or by starting an innovation district by itself.

From triple to quadruple helix – It is not surprising that this interweaving of the university with the city led to a shift of the triple helix concept towards the quadruple helix. It is the cooperation of university, (local) government, firms and inhabitants. This might have to do less with innovation, as far as the local population is involved, and points at – among others – education, continuous learning, living labs and other forms of co-production with citizens. Several authors state that universities should go to or settle next to deprived areas to encourage developments there.

Although these trends can explain the upcoming phenomena of innovation districts, we do not suggest that this is the end of STPs. STPs will continue to exist, but the concept has to be adjusted to new standards. The innovation district is just another concept in the realm of innovation areas.

Moreover, it is important to consider STPs, innovation districts and innovation campuses as focus points within an innovative region. It would be a serious mistake to think that such a cluster or set of clusters will in itself determine the innovation power of a city or region. Also, because too many relevant, innovative firms and institutions are established outside these innovation areas.

Figure 2: distance of European STPs to their closest university (EC, 2014)Afstand

The university, the networks and the ecosystem

Given the trends above, a university might choose to move (partly) into an innovation district which seems to be more open to the city than a campus at the edge of a city. Will that make it easier for a university to become a part of that ecosystem? Let us first have a look at the relationship between a university and an STP. It is often stated that universities play a crucial role in the development and success of the networks and the ecosystem on an STP. Proximity to a university is generally believed to be helpful (if not crucial) to establishing and maintaining a working relationship. Figure 2 shows that 84% of STPs are within 5 km of their closest university and 66% are either on or adjacent to the university campus (EC, 2014). This suggests that proximity of a university is crucial to the development of an STP. With regard to the new concept of innovation districts, the question arises whether an innovation district can do without a university. Or, the other way round, can a university campus be a good starting point for an innovation district?

A study of six STPs in The Netherlands (Van Dinteren, 2012) revealed that such a relationship with a university can cover a lot of activities and is not solely limited to knowledge linkages. It even appeared that other aspects/facilities were generally seen as more important by the entrepreneurs established on the STP (figure 3). The most important are the availability of graduate students, the access to libraries and data systems, and the access to laboratories and clean rooms. Only after that come the aspects more directly associated with research such as the opportunities for joint research between the company and the university and the presence of relevant research activities. These percentages are influenced by the fact that, in these STPs, firms are established that do not directly belong to the target group. Admission policy on some STPs in The Netherlands is rather weak. If we focus on firms and institutions that belong to the target group, these show above-average scores with regard to the appreciation of research activities (relevant to the company) present in the university (96% versus 74% overall), of being able to carry out joint research (89% in comparison to 73%) and of the availability of laboratories/clean rooms (72% versus 51% of the total population).

Figure 3: assessment of the opportunities from the neighbouring university (Van Dinteren, 2012)

Opportunities

Proximity, mass and density

The need for a university in some type of innovation area can be related to the desire of firms and other institutions to be able to consult researchers at the university quickly and informally. On the other hand, how relevant is proximity given globalisation, the internet and other possibilities for rapid exchange of knowledge? Recent studies seem to indicate that proximity still plays a role. Linkages between firms and research institutions function both on the local and global level. Sometimes a university is even criticised for too much global interest. For example, Meric Gertler, president of the University of Toronto agrees with the criticism that his university focuses too much on global relationships, reputation and rankings than on its community partners.

A study about research outcomes by Dutch CPB (2017) shows that the chance that a company builds on the knowledge produced at a university decreases the further it is from the university. This suggests that knowledge spill-overs are localised. The size of the effect also depends on the sector and the size of the university. The study is, however, focused on the regional level and is not clear about the impact of small(er) distances.

Andes (2017) states that over the last century hundreds of studies have proved the benefits of density and proximity for innovation and that these findings suggest that knowledge sharing among universities, research labs, and firms exists at the neighbourhood level. Andes does not elaborate on what proximity exactly means, but he shows that size of the city (mass) and density of the urban environment play a role, as universities established in that type of environment flourish. He analyses downtown universities in metropolitan areas (the reasoning here is based on numerous economic studies which show that large metropolitan areas experience much stronger positive effects of proximity than smaller cities). In his study, Andes compares the commercial outcomes of research universities located within employment-dense neighbourhoods (e.g. downtowns) in the 100 largest cities to the average research university. He finds that compared to their peers located in smaller towns, suburbs or rural areas on a per-student basis, ‘downtown’ universities:

  • produce 80% more licensing deals;
  • disclose 123% more inventions;
  • receive 222% more income from licensing agreements;
  • create 71% more start-ups.

These outcomes suggest that universities located in dense employment centres of cities achieve greater commercial impact for their research. Clustering of economic activities does matter and inner cities, where most of the innovation districts can be found or are located nearby, provide the right conditions for such a clustering.

The university and the innovation district: two models

There are two simple models when we look at the possible relationship between a university and an innovation district. In the first case, an innovation district is under development and looks for a university or annexes of a university to complete the picture, as it might be clear that a strong institution or company can be an important anchor in such a development. It helps to create an image, but it is also an important node in the local innovation network.

The second option is a university taking the initiative to develop an innovation district next to its premises, or maybe even mixed with its own buildings. The motivation, as described above, is to become a part of the city and not just being located in it.

Model 1 – Katz & Wagner (2014) state “universities are particularly helpful drivers for growing districts; for this reason, many districts that did not originally include universities (…) have convinced universities to build satellite campuses”. Initiators of the I.D.E.A. District in San Diego were worried about this development because a few years ago the migration of technology companies to the downtown area had started to take hold. In 2013, 25% of the new downtown leases, many of them tech companies, were executed by companies coming from outside of downtown. To speed up and assure development a corporate leader was needed “who can accelerate the transformation”. In December 2016, UC San Diego, a major research university, announced a 6,100 m2 downtown outpost. It is now expected that satellite businesses will surely follow. “As soon as UCSD or one of the other big academic institutions puts a beachhead downtown, then we’ll know downtown has arrived”, potential users told Carlson, a CBRE commercial broker active in downtown office leasing.

In the early days of the well-known Boston Innovation District, its position was strengthened when a satellite campus of Babson College was established. In 2011 this campus was expected to serve “as the academic anchor to help fuel further growth in the Innovation District”. “Nobody creates jobs like entrepreneurs, and nobody creates entrepreneurs like Babson,” said Mayor Menino.  “The inclusion of a top-tier academic institution here in the Innovation District is a key part of the supportive infrastructure we are building and providing to the people and businesses in this neighbourhood.  Babson’s expertise and partnership undoubtedly will help us fuel even more connectivity and growth across this district.”

In the case of the 22@Barcelona innovation district, companies have been the anchors in the early stage, but nowadays universities seem to have taken over this role. Being a publicly financed university, the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, for example, felt it was obliged to move a part of its activities, especially in the broad fields of communication, to the Barcelona innovation district.

Model 2 – or ‘the other way around’: the university that wants to become an innovation district. The reasons for this can differ. Offering a nice environment to work and study in is one possible reason, but creating stronger links with companies (the entrepreneurial university) is certainly another one. An example is Seattle’s University District. This district extends beyond the physical boundaries of the university which makes the development much more difficult because of the existing neighbourhoods. This raises a conflict between the envisaged development and liveability. The city takes care of good planning, assuring that there will be sufficient affordable housing, instead of gentrification. A light-rail station in the district will help to discourage motor vehicle traffic.

In the case of Melbourne (Australia) the development of an urban innovation district (MID) is an initiative of the City of Melbourne, RMIT University and the University of Melbourne. Home to 21% of all knowledge sector jobs in Melbourne, the urban innovation district features the central campuses of RMIT and the University of Melbourne, State Library Victoria, Queen Victoria Market, Royal Exhibition Building, Trades Hall and the Melbourne Museum. “Through community events and improved public spaces, MID will provide more opportunities for Melbourne’s knowledge workers, researchers, students, business and community organisations to connect and collaborate, creating innovative ideas essential for the city to continue to thrive and prosper. Planning considerations for the area will help innovation flourish and will include upgrades to streets, parks and other public spaces, while at the same time protecting the district’s suburban character”.

The added value of a university for an innovation district

If in an innovation district it is felt that a university is needed as an anchor it is assumed that such an institution will be crucial in stimulating innovation, and in creating a scientific, innovative ecosystem. The development of the Boston Innovation District mentioned above shows that such an anchor helps to strengthen the image of the development and stimulates entrepreneurs to choose to settle in the district. But the added value of a university is not limited to companies and other institutions. From the idea of a civic university, a university well embedded in society, there are also (high) expectations about the ability of the university to stimulate social and economic development in deprived areas, as it is often stated that many innovation districts are located near such neighbourhoods. Special (education) programs might help young people (with parents that have no university education) living in these neighbourhoods, offering better opportunities to visit a university. Students at the university can also play a role in these deprived areas as volunteers, supporting people, local schools and organisations. For the people living in these quarters, but also for others living in the surrounding areas, the university can provide access to facilities, such as gyms, meeting rooms, restaurants, library and the like. The university can also organise exhibitions and lectures and can actively participate in local projects, helping to find solutions for specific problems (see also box).

The University of Sheffield

The university has a programme of open days, lectures, seminars, exhibitions and family events running throughout the year. It offers a range of courses to members of the public, some of which are free. For example, Discover is a free award winning short course, designed to inspire adults who haven’t been to university. The course is delivered one morning each week, and focuses on themes that link into the subjects offered by the Department for Lifelong Learning. Sheffield Volunteering supports students and staff to get involved in activities in the city. Its aim is to increase awareness of local community issues amongst students as well as an understanding of how they can make a positive impact through volunteering. In 2014 2,213 students and staff took part in 2,922 volunteering opportunities within the local community and across Sheffield. The university’s sports facilities are open to the public, with many of the facilities available on a ‘pay and play’ basis such as the swimming pool, fitness classes, squash and badminton.

Source: Goddard & Kempton (2016)

It is our impression that, in the literature, particular attention is paid to the relationship of the university with surrounding districts, while in practice it is a relationship with the city, and perhaps the region too. This doesn’t exclude that a certain accent can be placed on deprived neighbourhoods.

The added value of an innovation district for the university

Although a university might be important as an anchor in an innovation district, the innovation district can also be of importance for the university itself as Bruce c.s. (2015) have described. Being established or having satellites in an innovation district helps research and innovation in universities. The authors sum up many examples (in the United States of America) of educational and research institutions that have moved key facilities and departments as a means of generating greater innovation output to retain or achieve competitive advantage in their respective clusters and fields. By seeking the best places within their region (or even within other regions), universities want to retain or strengthen their competitive power.

Of less significance is maybe the fact that the settlement of a university (or an annexe) might be perceived by students as an attractive location because of the dynamic environment “where people unexpectedly bump into each other again and again in their daily routines”. An environment formed by cafeterias, convenience stores, theatres, restaurants, and so on. As many innovation districts can be found in the central parts of a city, good public transport is guaranteed.

Further details from three cases

Besides the desk research, various interviews with representatives of universities were held. Special thanks to the following persons, because they were so kind to provide us with detailed information about their developments:

  • Anna Belchi (Pompeu Fabra University, director Campus del Poblenou, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Margaret O’Mara (associate professor of History, University of Washington, Seattle, USA)
  • Derek McCormack (Vice-Chancellor Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand).

Barcelona and Seattle have already been shortly introduced above. The development in Auckland is in an early stage. Massey University, Auckland Tourism, Events & Economic Development (ATEED) and BNZ are working together to develop a smart innovation district in the northern part of the city, comprising five districts. Goal is  to create a highly prosperous, vibrant and liveable community, where aspirational businesses and talented people will want to live and work, produce exportable innovation and collectively build a better future for themselves and their families.

Looking closer at these three examples, it’s obvious that there are significant differences in the relationship (and its origin) between the university and the innovation district. In Barcelona the establishment of an innovation district was going on for almost a decade when the Pompeu Fabra University decided to move a part of their activities to this redevelopment area. The university jumped, in a way, on a moving train. The universities in Seattle and Auckland were already established in the neighbourhood that started turning into an innovation district. These universities were in the heart of a development that seems to be partly autonomous and partly driven by their presence.

So, the Pompeu Fabra University was acquainted with the development of the 22@barcelona innovation district. Therefore the university was able to look at the economic profile of the innovation district and decided to move specific activities to the 22@barcelona district that have strong linkages with the clusters established in the area. The Campus del Poblenou is focused on ‘Communication and Information Technologies’. This is not to say that this is the strict focus. It was stated that the combination of specialisation and cross-overs will stimulate innovation. So the collaboration of the university with other institutions and companies is not limited to media and computer technology, but also involves other clusters such as medical, energy and design. The combination of specialisation and cross-overs is emphasised by the other interviewees as well. In Auckland one perceives the cross-clustering a characteristic of innovation districts, giving to new patents, business start-ups, and industry involvement, thus also effecting an increase in employment and wages.

In Seattle the University of Washington was surrounded by a university-oriented neighbourhood in its immediate vicinity before the concept of an innovation district was even mentioned. Its huge potential became clear only a few years ago and since 2012 the government and university have been working closely together to manage a more robust and future-oriented change. The commitment of the University of Washington to build a better U(niversity) District is driven by:

  • continuous, meaningful collaboration with the City and community partners;
  • learning from the experience of the most dynamic neighbourhoods around the region, the nation, and the globe; and
  • fostering growth that is complementary to other parts of the city and region, adding to overall economic and cultural dynamism of the State.

The case of Seattle also shows possible disadvantages of a spontaneous development. In Seattle it became apparent that walls along and overpasses across 15th Avenue had created a physical barrier between the city and campus. The new development plans provide an extraordinary opportunity to knit together campus and city, according to our interviewee.

Like Seattle, universities in Auckland were already established in the area that has become an innovation district. Since its transition to a university in 2000 Auckland University of Technology saw its surrounding neighbourhoods change, which might have been partly related to the presence of the universities. The same goes for Massey University, established in the same part of the city. Recognising that this part of Auckland was in the midst of constant residential and commercial property development and growth, Massey University held a symposium in 2015 to consider the future of Auckland North. This symposium demonstrated a clear interest in and excitement for bolstering an innovation district, and engendered the support of city leaders, university leaders and researchers, various business owners and entrepreneurs. This led to the ‘Grow North’ initiative that focusses on establishing a (more formal) innovation district. Clusters of innovation are already beginning to emerge organically in Auckland North.

For the universities of Seattle, Auckland and Barcelona, it is obvious that they contribute significantly to the success of the innovation district. Although it is difficult to determine it exact benefits, there seem to be some common take-a ways:

  • being partners in joint innovation projects with companies established in the district (not excluding others, of course);
  • providing facilities and equipment to support company R&D projects;
  • foster start-ups by setting up incubators;
  • offering educational programs to the inhabitants of the surrounding neighbourhoods, especially in the case of deprived quarters, in order to enhance education levels and lower the threshold to the university (inclusion and engagement; sometimes also relevant to the city as a whole);
  • creating positive urban change in the cities they are located in, especially in the direct vicinity of the innovation district: more varied housing options (enhancing diversity) and amenities, and engagement in neighbourhood revitalisation.

When it comes to the benefits of being located in an innovation district, all interviewees agree that also the university benefits. Most important advantages for the universities are:

  • understanding the needs of society / companies and adapting the education program to it;
  • the interchange of staff and students across porous boundaries. Innovation districts are able to enhance student experiences, and stimulate research and creative activity among the university staff and students;
  • having close working links with start-up and more mature companies in innovation districts enabling the flow of graduates into employment and cooperating on joint R&D projects;
  • the possibility of neighbourhood redevelopment in order to expand the campus footprint.

Finally, according to our interviewees, many factors determine the success of an innovation district development. The following starting conditions were stressed:

  • having a strong basis: innovative firms present and willing to engage in collaboration, an entrepreneurial university focussed on innovation, the active contribution of venture capitalists and other investors;
  • taking the very long term as a starting point, but also focus at quick wins;
  • creating a vision and strategy that is shared with and supported by investors, companies, universities, government, inhabitants and other stakeholders.

And especially with regard to the university:

  • a pro-active strategy by the university for open collaboration with business and industry;
  • an active commercialisation office or company within the university;
  • active support for student entrepreneurship plus entrepreneurship training for staff and students;
  • flexible commercialisation policies to enable easier spin-out of new ventures or licensing of Intellectual Property;
  • having the university commercialisation office well linked to relevant industries and product sector experts who bring IP ventures to the right know-how and seed capital in the Innovation District.

Preliminary conclusion

In an innovation economy, networks are essential. Large innovative companies and universities can build the webs connecting these networks. Although we have all the opportunities to establish worldwide networks, research suggests that proximity is still important. But what is proximity? Is that on the neighbourhood, the city or the regional level? What about smaller cities and larger ones? 66% of all STPs are established on the campus of a university. That seems to suggest that short distances are relevant. And, as we have seen, that it is not just because of networks, but also about facilities and the like, we could state that proximity also helps to create that dynamic environment that students, innovators and companies are looking for. In that respect, it is also interesting to notice that universities in dense areas flourish.

Given these outcomes, one could suggest that it is relevant to have a university or an annexe of a university in an innovation district, as distance does matter. However, there are as yet no hard research outcomes that make it clear that the success of an innovation district is dependent upon a university. Apart from that, the cases described here suggest, in short, that the establishment of a university or annexe can help the development of an innovation district by creating trust and contributing to a positive image of the development.

It is also interesting to note that universities themselves believe in the concept. Innovation districts can try to attract a university, but we have seen that there is also another model in which the university wants to develop an innovation district on its premises or adjacent to it. In our opinion the interviews we have held confirm the outcomes of our desk research.

Although it is all based on circumstantial evidence, our research seems to suggest that the establishment of a university (annexe) can be a significant anchor in the development of an innovation area. We like to invite our fellow researchers to gather more hard information on the linkages between a university and its innovation district. What does proximity mean in terms of (kilo)meters? Keep in mind that proximity not only refers to exchanging information but is also relevant with regard to other aspects such as availability of students, facilities and the like.

Quoted literature

  • Andes, Scott (2017), Hidden in plain sight: The oversized impact of downtown universities. Massachusetts: Brooking Institution.
  • CPB (2017), De regionale impact van universiteiten; een literatuuroverzicht. The Hague: Dutch Central Planning Office (CPB).
  • EU – European Commission (2014), Setting up, managing and evaluating EU science and technology parks.
  • Goddard, J. and Vallance, P. (2013), The University and the City, Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Goddard, John and Louise Kempton (2016), The civic university. Universities in leadership and management of place. Newcastle University.
  • Katz, Bruce and Julie Wagner (2014), The Rise of Innovation Districts: A New Geography of Innovation in America. Massachusetts: Brooking Institution.
  • Katz, Bruce, Jennifer S. Vey, and Julie Wagner (2015), One year after: Observations on the rise of innovation districts. Blog.
  • Van Dinteren, Jacques (2012), Science parks in The Netherlands. Stimulating innovation or just iconic for firms? Paper for the 41st Annual Conference of Regional Science Association, British and Irish Section. Galway, Ireland, August 2012.

[1] In our opinion science & technology parks, innovation districts and industrial innovation campuses are different forms of innovation areas.

Campus to City: Urban Design for Universities

Kees Christiaanse (KCAP) in ‘Campus and the City’

The ‘campus’ is a phenomenon of increasing relevance to modern urban planning. In Europe, universities are reconsidering their position in society and taking on extensive reorganisations and expansions of their physical structures. The postwar university campus as an isolated community of scholars is subject to thorough revision. In Asia, on the other hand, new campus-style universities are shooting up like mushrooms. Global companies build campus-style factory sites for their international headquarters or for their research-and-development departments. The controversy over the desirability of openness and interaction with the urban environment versus the increasing popularity of the ‘gated community’ and restricted access, demonstrates the need for a radical debate on the shape and the position of the campus in relationship to its context.

An interesting archetype for the relationship between the university and the city is Cambridge University in Great Britain. Here, cloister-like ‘colleges’ in the shape of more or less closed compounds surrounding an inner courtyard are scattered in clusters all over the city. Although Cambridge is one of the oldest universities in the world, this constellation may well  be highly relevant to the present search for the ideal accommodation of today’s university: an ‘interconnected deconcentration’ of specialised clusters, which together constitute a network of knowledge and individually function as catalysts for their immediate surroundings. This complementary symbiosis of the ivory tower and everyday life is expressed in various ways: in the architecture of the buildings, in the dress code and lifestyle of the Cambridge students and in the famous map of Cambridge pubs, which serves as a diagram of social activity.

Size Matters

In Cambridge, the intimate relationship between ‘town and gown’ did not result from a deliberate avoidance of functional segregation. It developed from the limited size of the historical city, from its spatial structures, which are based on walking distances, and from the limited scale and complexity of teaching and research at that time. Likewise in Leyden, home of the oldest university of the Netherlands, virtually all the university buildings and even the private residences of the professors were originally situated along a single canal, the so-called Rapenburg.

The increase in scale which led to our contemporary problems concerning functional and social segregation and mobility did not begin until the second half of the nineteenth century. In the nineteenth century, the ram-parts surrounding European cities were demolished. Under the influence of the industrial revolution and the emergence of social awareness, large urban institutions were founded. In Zurich, the train station and the polytechnic school designed by architect Gottfried Semper were built on the edge of the city in the area of the former ramparts.

From an ideological point of view, these interventions were equivalent to the creation of a postwar campus in the 1960s: both involve the outplacement of huge monofunctional entities to an isolated location beyond the city limits, as can be seen in a late nineteenth-century map of Zurich. Contrary to the original intentions, however, Zurich’s ETH Zentrum and the adjacent University are now being praised for their inner-city locations and their close interactions with the city. As a matter of fact, the city caught up with the university and eventually integrated it into the urban spatial structure. Nowadays, an implicit aim of ETH Zurich’s Science City project is to embed the ETH even further and to reconciliate it with its context, while simultaneously preserving a certain autonomous identity.

Islands of Quiet

In a way, this is also what happened to the postwar university campus of  the 1960s. The EPF in Lausanne is a prime example of such an isolated extra-municipal campus. In its structuralist urban planning concept, the various faculties, lecture halls and laboratories are arranged like modules along a central spine. In the middle of the spine is an ‘agora’ which provides a wide range of collective facilities. This geometrical shape, pressed into the sloping banks of Lake Geneva, perfectly reflects the idea of a knowledge centre in the midst of nature, geared to provide a maximum of quietness and concentration.

However attractive and pure this idea may seem, thirty years after its widespread implementation it is evident that this type of university campus does not lead to a desirable sociocultural and urban environment. It is hampered by its isolated location, its monofunctional disposition and its remoteness from mixed urban structures. Revisions generally aim at adding living quarters for students and staff, providing high-quality public trans-port and attracting commercial and cultural functions, such as spin-off enterprises, shops and a library or a theatre, which are also open to the in-habitants of the surrounding suburbs.

These suburbs are in fact the selfsame city which, like nineteenth-century urban expansions, has encircled and swallowed the university. Despite their flaws, the suburbs show the modern city’s true appearance, which has virtu-ally the same shape all over the world. This is where the greater part of the population lives and a major part of economic production takes place.

If the campus is not surrounded by suburbs, adding non-university functions to encourage functional diversity and social interaction is likely to increase the risk of further isolation. The campus of Twente University in the Netherlands, for example, offers such a complete range of amenities for living, working, shopping and leisure and is so far removed from the city, that it is turning into an autonomous compound with all the characteristics of a gated community or an Asian campus.

In Silicon Valley, however, no city had formerly existed to catch up with the university. Here the spin-off activities around Stanford University generated such a boost that it made an Edge City expand into a veritable urban conglomeration, which in turn now determines the socioeconomic life of an entire region.

Inner-city Campus

However, the ideal model in the head of many planners for the campus revisions that are taking place all over Europe is not a university of deconcentrated clusters of various sizes, positions and characteristics, reconciled with the city on the scale of polycentric conurbations. Their ideal is the illusion of the inner-city campus within walking distance from the city, as it is embodied in the Technical University of Berlin (TU), Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, or the London School of Economics (LSE).

The TU Berlin is a mono-functional campus, whose mono-functionality is compensated for by its central position in the middle of the city. Situated on the interface between a city park, the Tiergarten, and the nineteenth-century district of Charlottenburg, the TU Berlin enjoys the advantages  of a traditional campus as well as the perks of a university that blends in with the city. Due to the ravages of World War II, there is still sufficient space for expansion.

In Cambridge, Massachusetts, the opposite is true. Here, the heart of this former suburb now consists of Harvard Yard and Harvard Square, the oldest parts of Harvard University, and the development of the city has kept up with the growth of the university. It is a convincing example of a harmonious exchange between university and city, with central functions (Harvard Square), a city park (Harvard Yard) and a university centre at its heart. Our third example, the LSE in London, occupies a historical city district. It consists of a network of alleys and squares and a collection of large and small, old and new buildings that are placed within the original allocation pattern. Over the years, premises have been joined together, enlarged or replaced. The result is a university nestling in the city district as if by mimicry. The formidable urban qualities of such an unplanned university raise the question as to whether we should actually design universities at all, or perhaps rather allow them to infiltrate and transform a city district through improvisation and embroidering existing structures.

Campus Revisited

While the postwar university campus of the 1960s is presently undergoing an identity crisis and major revision in Europe, this is certainly not the  case in other parts of the world, as recent developments in Asia indicate.  In many Asian countries the extra-municipal, monofunctional campus of quietness and concentration is not perceived as a problem, but as a symbol of progress (and social control). The University City Guangzhou in China even consists of a ‘city of campuses’. Here, about ten university campuses form a conglomeration where students and staff virtually spend their lives, well provided for by all kinds of infrastructure.

Global enterprises have also adopted the campus as a blueprint for their international headquarters or their research-and-development departments. Companies like Microsoft, Novartis, Volkswagen, Benetton, Adidas and  Nike each have their own way of using the campus concept as a leitmotif.

In reaction to severe criticism of Nike’s deployment of child labour in sweatshops in low-wage countries, the company made a radical turn to-wards a policy of sustainable production techniques and social responsibility. One of the new techniques allows for sneakers to be recycled as ground material for floor-coverings in gyms. In Guangzhou, Nike developed Shoe-City, a production campus inspired by the garden cities built by philanthropic entrepreneurs in the nineteenth century, where employees can find affordable housing and send their children to school. By comparison, the Nike World Campus in Beaverton, Oregon, is a less inspiring project. In-stead of using a former industrial area to build a headquarters within walking distance of the city centre, like Benetton did in Italy, Beaverton Campus is a quintessential gated community, with white, Richard Meier-like buildings that look like ships run aground in the green belt. Instead of offering a multiple network of footpaths and bicycle tracks within an urban environment, the area is only accessible by car. The layout of the campus is  defined by parking lots rather than by jogging tracks.

Far more interesting are the developments of Benetton in Treviso and of VW in Wolfsburg. Both projects inject new life into a run-down city centre by generating interaction with new functional clusters.

Catalytic Enclaves

In many urban and architectural situations, redeveloping existing structures leads to more interesting results than building virginal new premises.2 The archetype of a university working as an instrument of revitalisation for derelict industrial sites is the project Potteries Think-belt by Cedric Price, which was never built. In this concept, the faculties, laboratories, lecture halls and student dormitories are situated far apart in disused ceramic factories, which are connected by a railway system originally built for trans-porting raw materials and ceramics. Lectures were to be given in the trains while students and staff commuted between the various locations.

This utopia, which reverberates in projects like IBA-Emscherpark in Germany, is an early version of the concept that universities can serve as networks of dispersed concentrations which activate weaker areas. It also tallies with the idea that traffic infrastructure can structuralise the economics of knowledge. In accordance with this idea, the universities and colleges of Rotterdam have arranged themselves along an ‘axis of knowledge’, the subway which traverses the city. The faculties are concentrated around three subway stations. This stimulates urban development in the areas, as students are the social group most willing to engage in urban activities.

One of the most radical and impressive examples of a university that stimulates urban activity is Bilgi University in Istanbul, Turkey. The institution buys and restores former industrial buildings in less developed areas of the city in order to provide adequate and affordable premises for its own growing activities, while at the same time giving a huge socioeconomic boost to the surrounding city quarters. Most notably the Santral project, involving a former power station on the peninsula at the source of the Golden Horn, demonstrates a degree of commitment and ambition com-parable to the zeal of Zeche Zollverein in Essen, Germany. The peninsula is being transformed into a city park at the Golden Horn. In this park, the power station is converted to accommodate the main building of the uni-versity. Such a catalytic enclave creating a network across the city reflects not only the spirit of Cedric Price’s Potteries Think-belt, but also that of the time-honoured Cambridge colleges.

Science City, ETH Zurich

The Hönggerberg campus of the ETH in Zurich is a standard university complex from the 1960s, when the creation of large-scale universities led to expansion outside the city. The campus was built as an isolated enclave on a green hill. In the 1960s, it still stood outside the city; now it is a mono-functional island in the middle of the archipelago formed by the Zurich agglomeration. Just as the city has evolved into an agglomeration, the  atomisation of the university has resulted in its development into an ag-glomeration within the city or, to put it more positively, the university has become interwoven with the city despite separation and specialisation. Proceeding from this interpretation, we can try to bring the suburban cam-pus into contact with surrounding city districts, generating a communal basis capable of supporting new activities. A basis for commercial functions like shops, cafés and restaurants is achieved by a densification of the campus with, alongside additional university buildings, residential buildings where live/work combinations and spin-off business activities are possible as well as complementary amenities like a primary school. Thanks to lecture halls and foyers also being used for events and community activities, there is a sociocultural exchange with the city. While it is true that no inner-city  urbanity will evolve here, it does provide fertile ground for a gradual development towards a well-balanced environmental quality. This attempt at an integration of city and university constitutes the true significance of the term ‘Science City’.

Science Park Amsterdam

While Science City in Zurich was a pre-existing campus on a beautiful site, the Science Park planned for Amsterdam’s Watergraafsmeer, originally a polder, is an urban bathtub. Surrounded by water and dikes, a railway yard and Amsterdam’s orbital motorway – all the elements of contemporary, closed spatial systems – it is self-contained. It is of little consequence for the rest of the city whether a residential district, an industrial area, a quarantine terrain or a university campus is located here. This shocking conclusion is alas no longer unusual. It applies to most suburban enclaves, except that these are generally not perceived as being so extreme because they have softer edges. On the one hand, there is something attractive about the idea that the city can consist of interchangeable ‘patches’; on the other hand, the insularity, concentrated access and monofunctionality of such areas leads to a lack of social control, uneven daytime and nighttime rhythms, a lack of multiple relationships, an increase in mobility – in short to primitive, one-dimensional systems.

In this area, which is only accessible at three points, the Science Park, the scientific cluster of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), is being developed. Construction zones run from east to west, interspersed with wide bands of green. The construction zones are subject to a building code that is characterised by a labyrinthine structure that establishes a system of successive public and semi-public spaces. Situating communal amenities at junctions fosters concentrations of public activity. Instead of standing like bonbons on the grass, the buildings ‘fold’ themselves around the courtyards and interweave with adjacent buildings. It is not the form of the actual buildings that dominates, but the system of spaces between the buildings: this ‘anti-hierarchical network’ reflects the idea of ‘university’. The system for non-motorized traffic, meandering through the courtyards and atria like a net-work of rabbit runs, can expand and contract, depending on the intensity of use and the day-and-night rhythm. The public green strips also serve as a logistical zone for goods deliveries and as a cable route, where fibre-optic cables, nitrogen pipes or central heating for the blocks can be laid, as de-sired. Thus all the laboratories enjoy flexible access to the technical infra-structure.

Housing, cafés and restaurants, a public transport facility, a hotel, and sports facilities will also be developed in the Science Park. But unlike Science City, these functions do not mix. Within the polder bathtub they form a miniature archipelago of monofunctional islands, because the faculty buildings and laboratories produce emissions and must be able to expand and contract. This situation is illustrative of the dilemma between the desire for functional interaction and the imperative of programmatic criteria.

With this design concept we try to provide an instrument to enable non-mixable entities in the urban archipelago to function in complementary ways, by designing their interactive and relational structures rather than forcing an unfortunate integration.3

 

Prof. dr. Jacques van Dinteren, Zjak Consult, The Netherlands / Innovation Area Development Partnership (IADP)

Laurens Tait MSc, Arup / Innovation Area Development Partnership (IADP)

Ir. Frank Werner, KCAP Architects&Planners / Innovation Area Development Partnership (IADP)

While the emphasis early on was on the physical development, along the way developers started realising that science and technology parks (STPs) require an entirely different approach. This blog (partly based on earlier ones) starts with presenting an overview of the development of the STP-concept and the impact of management on the success of these parks. In The Netherlands that success is to a certain extent often hampered by the fact that several parties are involved, having their own responsibilities. A simple model is described in which daily management can have control over the socio-economic and the physical aspects. This model can also be used for co-innovation parks and the upcoming concept of innovation districts (all together: innovation areas). In the last part it is stated that changing concepts have led to changes in management and this evolution will continue due to, among others, globalisation.

The innovation area as an umbrella

The ‘science park’ is a phenomenon of increasing relevance to modern urban planning (Christiaanse, 2007). In Europe, universities are reconsidering their position in society and taking on extensive reorganisations and expansions of their physical structures. The post-war university campus as an isolated community of scholars is subject to thorough revision. In Asia, on the other hand, new campus-style universities are shooting up like mushrooms. Global companies build campus-style factory sites for their international headquarters or for their research-and-development departments.

Given the nature of the activities and the institutions a science or technology park (STP) focuses on, it should not be considered likely that this would be a static concept. Companies and institutions that are focussed on innovation generally are highly dynamic. Nevertheless, in the first decades of its existence the STP-concept was predominantly viewed as a ‘stand-alone’ activity and often primarily as a real estate development. In western economies this has significantly changed over the last three decades and the primary focus has shifted to stimulating innovation. That is a first trend.

A second trend is the broadening of the concept. When it is about specific locations for innovations it is no longer about STPs alone. (Industrial) co-innovation parks, developed around a leading innovative company instead of a university, were created when these companies opened up their sites for other companies and institutions.

A relatively new concept is the innovation district which can be defined as “a designated zone with its own specific management team, whose main objectives include economic development via the promotion and attraction of selective innovative business for which specific services are provided or made available, and that may also include residential and cultural zones or facilities, or be embedded in urban spaces having such facilities, and with which the economic aspects of the area of innovation interact” (Sanz, 2016). In fact Sanz and others (Nilina c.s., 2016) use the term “innovation area”. The scale of such an area can vary widely. Ann Arbor SPARK (U.S.A.) covers an entire region, while 22@Barcelona is 200 ha. In our opinion all the more reason to distinguish between innovative regions and innovation districts which, in terms of scale, are comparable to co-innovation parks and science parks. We suggest to use the concept of an “innovation area” as the umbrella term for science parks, industrial co-innovation parks and innovation districts. On a higher geographical scale one can distinguish the “innovation region”.

The shifting away from a real estate development towards stimulating innovation has changed the management of these sites. It is not about managing buildings, but managing a community of people working on innovations. Due to its character managing an innovation district might be somewhat different from managing a STP or an co-innovation park. The management of such a development is still important, though functional blending of activities is a relatively new element in this concept and might ask for a somewhat different approach. Due to the functional mix other parties than the usual ones might become involved, such as the inhabitants of the area. Moreover, the link with a university is generally less strong, though this can be partially overcome by establishing a ‘branch’.

The above demonstrates that there are alterations in the concept over time and this has led to changes in the way these estates are managed. Such modifications will continue, for example due to the rather isolated geographical position of many STPs, often at the edge of a city. That poses questions about the embeddedness of STPs (and probably also co-innovation parks) in the region. May be the region is a better scale: an innovation region with multiple focal points (innovation areas) and a network of companies and institutions which are located in those innovation areas and elsewhere in the region. That poses questions about the way innovation areas and their linkages with the region are organised. It also raises the question whether management at the regional level is needed. And in a next step one has even to consider the global level. Thanks to travel options, telecommunications and the like, regions are included in worldwide networks through the process of globalisation and innovation parks become hubs in global knowledge network.

This paper will discuss some of these changes, using a simplified model of changing innovation area concepts and changing management activities.

Changing concepts, changing management

Figure 1 sketches the development of the innovation area concept over the past decades, also showing the emergence of innovation districts and the growing interest of embedding these concepts in regional and worldwide networks. It is an ideal-type image which will rarely apply to a specific innovation area. The figure mainly shows that currently much more emphasis is placed on networks and (therefore also) on the regional and worldwide embedding of an innovation area. The more complex these networks are, which is also related to the geographical scale, the more important the management of the ecosystem.

There are many ways to manage a company and there are also many ways to run an innovation area. When analysing management concepts, ownership is an important starting point. A survey of IASP in 2012 (European Commission, 2013; refer to figure 2) shows that the public sector dominates: 55% of STPs in Europe are owned by public parties, mainly local government, public universities and regional government. This can be a mix of public parties. 15% of the STPs are privately owned (private universities and foundations, and private companies) and 31% of the STPs have a mixed ownership. In this latter case local government, public universities and private companies dominate.

Figure 1: Ideal-type development of the innovation area concept and its management Ontwikkleing management

Figure 2: Ownership of STPs in Europe (source: European Commission, 2013)Ownership

The above mentioned survey by IASP relates ownership to land, sites, infrastructures and buildings. If perceived in such a way managing a STP doesn’t differ from managing an industrial estate or a business park. This focus on the physical aspects of a STP was typical for the first decades of the STP concept, as stated earlier. In that stage the typical characteristic of a STP was a physical clustering of a certain target group, in this case a group of companies focussing on research and development. During the years the insight grew that the real economic asset of a STP is in the linkages between companies, institutions and a university. The conclusion was that successful STP management needed an extra layer. Management of a commercial estate will focus on infrastructure underground and the surface and will take care of buildings and the built environment figure 3). But the added value of an innovation area is in the ‘software’ as an extra layer. That distinguishes it from a regular industrial site or business park:

  • management of the networks between companies, institutions and a university;
  • management of the facilities for companies, institutions and a university;
  • management of the services for the community (the people who work on the site).

Figure 3: physical and socio-economic layers as individual and interconnected components of an innovation arealagenbenadering

The right section of figure 1 shows the manner in which the management of innovation area concepts has adapted to evolving concepts and the shift from real estate towards the community (to put it briefly). Today many STPs in the western world are ‘halfway’, although many differences exist between countries and regions. There is a focus on creating networks between the parties in the estate and management also takes care of a high quality environment for the employees to sustain creative processes and to attract and keep a critical and highly educated workforce, the community. When looking at creating the community joint festivities, sports events and having a drink together should help to develop this. Part of this is also the quality of the working environment. Two third of the managers in Dutch science parks stated that due to the scarcity of highly educated personnel a sublime working environment is essential. Although it isn’t a science park, but much more a cluster of media companies, Chiswick Park in London is still one of the most striking examples of creating such a work environment. Although building a community is perceived today as an essential part of an innovation part, the most crucial is creating the networks between companies and institutions. Match making, organising seminars, support with patent applications are all matters which are part of the extensive service package which innovation area management offers.

So, today, there are many different management activities: area and real estate management, network and community management, but also facility management, asset management, etc. All these management activities generally have different stakeholders. This can cause problems. How can these different fields become properly connected and organised in a coherent way? Is it possible to have one organisation that can do business on behalf of all partners? If there is only one owner managing a STP is (relatively) easier, of course. In The Netherlands that is case with the High Tech Campus in Eindhoven. Other STP’s show a somewhat more complex organisation.

Managing STPs in The Netherlands

Although there are many differences one can generally state that many of the Dutch STPs now are in the stage of further developing the community and building networks. The question who manages the STP is relevant here, because in general there are two or more stakeholders. The exception is the High Tech Campus in Eindhoven. Starting point for the Philips High Tech Campus were the high quality laboratories of Philips (NatLab), the trend towards open innovation and the feeling by management that the company had to stimulate the regional economy. This latter aspect had to with the decision by Philips to move their headquarter from Eindhoven to Amsterdam in 1998. In a discussion with government the idea of an open innovation park came up to compensate for the loss (although only 300 jobs were involved). Initially the park was managed by Philips, but in 2008 Philips decided to sell the campus to focus on their core business.  In January 2012 Philips established High Tech Campus Eindhoven Site Management B.V. (without the name Philips). This organisation takes care of daily management, including marketing and promotion. In that year a Dutch investor  Chalet Group) bought the campus and today all management activities are still in one hand. However some specific and unique facilities are still owned and managed by Philips.

New tenants in HTCE get two types of contracts with two organisations affiliated to Chalet Group: a Service Level Agreement (SLA) with HTCE Site Management and a Lease Contract with Calittum HTCE for rent and parking space. The first one overs three types of services: collective obligatory services that are site related (e.g. energy, ICT, infrastructure, etc.); collective optional services if needed; and optional services that are free choice and taken via HTCE Site Management (Curvelo Magdaniel, 2016).

TU Delft Science Park once started in 2005 as a predominantly real estate project by property developers Bouwfonds MAB and ING Real Estate: Technopolis Innovation Park (120 ha). University and municipality took care of the financial aspects of the land development, including the financial risks. The developers took care of the master plan and the investments needed, would buy the land from the owners and develop the buildings. All parties worked together in a project organisation, but due to the lack of expertise in the development companies the project failed and the university took over. The exclusive cooperation agreement between the landowners of Technopolis and ING Vastgoed and MAB / Bouwfonds was disbanded. Today the university has the lead and is looking for the best form to manage the development. The university also offers space for companies in their own buildings. Municipality and university work together on the marketing of the science park in ‘Delft Technology Partners’.

So far for the involvement of real estate companies. One being successful, but another wasn’t. In the Netherlands property developers are reluctant and if a developer is interested the question often is how to convince investors. It is a niche market and if developers or investors doesn’t feel comfortable, projects will not start. Even when it is only about buildings it is sometimes difficult to get the project going. Specialisation, however, helps as is shown by the successful developments of Kadans Science Partner. A very interesting aspect is that this developer / investor combines a real estate development with the management of the building, as the building remains in the portfolio of Kadans. Kadans provides a total package of services, including work space facilities, coaching, advice, financing and access to its network.

To stimulate investments and to make investments easier to get, the Netherlands Investment Institution (NLII) is now organising a fund for science parks and R&D related real estate. Pension funds and insurers can invest directly in this fund.

In the case of the Amsterdam Science Park the estate is owned by municipality and university together, however it is a patchwork of ownership. The estate of the Dutch Scientific Organisation (NWO) covers the northern part of the science park and has its own park management. Municipality and university sell the available land for the same price. Both took care of the urban master plan, which is supervised by the municipality.

The construction zones are subject to a building code that is characterized by a continuous and varied network structure that establishes a system of successive public and semi-public spaces. Situating communal amenities at junctions fosters concentrations of public activity. Instead of standing like isolated jewels in the landscape, the buildings ‘fold’ themselves around the courtyards and interweave with adjacent buildings. In this way, interactivity, knowledge exchange and cooperation among the companies in the area is stimulated. This creates a base for successful social and economic interaction through stimulating a ‘xenogamy’ of various talents, ideas and insights.

Companies that want to establish on the park go to the central organisation which takes care of the first contact. Contracts are handled by the land owners and the municipality checks if the company fits into the profile as described in the spatial plan. Daily management is carried out by the Science and Business Organization of Amsterdam Science Park. This is the central and joint organization of the three founding partners, which are the city of Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam and NWO. These three are in the board of directors and are joint by four other representatives of companies and institutions on the park. The main goal of the S&B organisation is to connect entrepreneurship, education and research and to connect Amsterdam Science Park with its external partners. The main focus points of the management organisation are:

  • acquisition & retention;
  • valorisation & entrepreneurship;
  • corporate communication;
  • functions & facilities;
  • internal & external relations.

It all works well together, but it is said that an improvement can be achieved if the land is in one hand and competences are concentrated, both preferably within the existing management organisation.

The same ideas can be heard in Utrecht Science Park. Stakeholders are the Utrecht University, the academic hospital and the Hogeschool Utrecht (College). Provincial and local government is also involved but not an owner of building or land. Daily management is carried out by Foundation Utrecht Science Park.

Several parties own the land. That includes parking spaces, but the fares for parking are not synchronised. Interested companies and institutions can have a site on basis of a land lease. Available land is sold by the university, but in general interested parties start the discussion with the foundation.

In a project carried out in 2016 the joint conclusion was that too many parties were involved in too many aspects of the science park. The ambition is to get a slim and flexible organisation, which will be the existing foundation. The question is, however, which tasks can be handed over, under what conditions (mandate). The joint ambition is

  • a common vision regarding the development of the science park (urban development, economic impact, target groups, growth strategy, etc.);
  • joint park management;
  • joint mobility management;
  • joint parking management;
  • cooperation in offering services to the community;
  • marketing and acquisition of the target group, including a strict admission policy.

In the vision attention has to be paid to the question how costs, profits and risks can be distributed among the stakeholders. Whatever the organisation, the stakeholders are all customers of the daily organisation (the existing foundation). A  stakeholder analysis it is determined to find out which stakeholders are involved and the degree of the influence they can get.

With regard to the area development each party retains his responsibilities as currently laid down. Joining forces in this field will be discussed in a later stage.

Looking at Utrecht and Amsterdam it is clear that there is a feeling that governance of a science park should be organised in such a way that all relevant tasks are carried out by one central organisation. This can be heard in several other places in The Netherlands. Managers involved are very much interested in (rather) simple organisations as have been set up for Oxford Science Park or Surrey Science Park in the United Kingdom. So, during a project for Utrecht Science Park the question rose: what can be a rather general governance model that takes every stakeholder seriously, but makes one central, coordinating management office possible? How to optimise governance?

Optimalisation of governance

Starting point is that in today’s innovation areas the development of a knowledge network of companies and institutions is essential (including facilities). The same goes for the creation of a community (which is more focussed on personnel, offering services and a top working environment). All together: the ecosystem. Of course one needs also an attractive area and buildings that suit the needs of companies and institutions that are focussed on innovations. This leads to following simple way of reasoning: development strategy à ecosystem à physical development. It cannot be denied that first of all the ‘guests’ in the estate (companies, institutions, university, leading innovative company, others) are central. This leads to the scheme presented in figure 4.

The scheme makes a distinction between the social-economic system (blue) and the physical, spatial system (brown) which creates the conditions for the social-economic system. The two main activities in the social-economic system will be carried out by one organisation, taking care of daily management and strategies and is controlled by a supervising council in which all relevant stakeholders are represented. That includes the stakeholders responsible for the area and the buildings. Now we have to add government. First of all because the plans have to fit into the legal plans of (local) government. Also the university, for example, will have its own policy that can be relevant for the development. Now we have a model that is recognisable in several science parks in The Netherlands (figure 5).

 Figure 4: in search for a governance structure – starting positionOrganisatie 1

Figure 5: The extended schemeOrganisatie 2

Problem is, however, that daily management has no direct control over the physical environment. In many of the Dutch cases this doesn’t hamper the functioning of daily management, although it is often said that it makes a coordinated management of the estate less easier and asks for more coordination than would be necessary. Therefore, the next step in the model is to give the ecosystem management organisation the mandate to take care of the area and real estate management Figure 6). To complete the picture we can add the linkages between the central management organisation and external parties that offer financial solutions, which are of great importance for the companies and institutions working in the innovation area. Stakeholders in the Utrecht Science Park are now together exploring the possibilities for such a model.

Figure 6: Final schemeorganisatie 3

New themes in management

The ideas about managing an innovation area have changed over the years. It would be simple to think that it would stop here. New developments are coming up, like serendipity management or changing the introvert character of STPs and co-innovation parks and making these estates focal points in a regional network.

Serendipity management

A new element in managing the networks of an innovation area is creating or stimulating serendipity. Essentially serendipity management comes down to: how can people with different backgrounds be connected and collaborate, to enable new insights and ultimately new products to be developed through “pure coincidence” (= serendipity)?  This may manifest itself in a building in which the concept resembles all kinds of creative work places which are popping up all over the place in which flexible, playfully designed spaces with all kinds of facilities and short lease periods are available for creative people, entrepreneurs and others. An example of this in a science park is the NetWork Oasis at the Joensuu Science Park (Finland). This concept will only become truly interesting when the idea of serendipity is combined with a method in which different researchers and product developers with different characters and backgrounds are brought together. This is done via a step-by-step process including training camps and work sessions to build teams, which will then focus on the development of a new product (see Kakko, 2013). This has consequences for the management method, as shown in the table below. Not that this will make project management obsolete. The schedule shows that by including networking, and particularly from the perspective of serendipity, other skills are required from managers and involved parties.

Table 1: Difference between project management and management of serendipity (Kakko, 2013) Serendipity management

Regional embeddedness

A STP can only develop and be successful if it is situated in an innovative region. So, it is logical that a STP, but also other innovation areas, is well connected with its region. An innovation area needs regional embeddedness. An innovation area, in fact, is nothing more than a spatial cluster of R&D related activities within an innovative region. And even than: what is a region when we are talking about innovation? The best innovation areas are or are becoming hubs in large, global networks, thanks to enhanced telecommunication and travel options.

Linkages in the regional network can be established by companies and institutions. Part of the game can be the creation of satellites by an innovation area. As an innovation area has reached the limits of its growth, occasionally “branches” are developed in other parts of the region. One out of three members of IASP already has one or more branches. In The Netherlands none of the innovation areas have branches. In 2016 the Utrecht Science Park was the first one to think about establishing satellites because the park itself is almost fully occupied. A project has been carried out to find out what the best locations are. Two branch types were distinguished:

  • development cluster: applied R&D and development of products based on the results of basic research;
  • testing cluster: laboratories, pilot plants and the like.

After a first selection of 37 locations, 11 were investigated in more detail. 14 variables, grouped in three main dimensions, were used to test the suitability of these possible satellites:

  • (spatial) quality of the location and companies present (availability of sites and buildings, representability of the buildings, availability of services, quality of public space, other companies present);
  • reachability (travel time to Utrecht Science Park by car and by public transport, time to reach a motorway, time to reach a railway station);
  • development potential by local government (legal cooperation, welcoming attitude, willingness to invest, park management, strict admission policy).

To test the stability of the outcomes two sets of weighted variables were used, which had no great impact on the outcomes. Utrecht Science park now starts to use a nearby complex as its first satellite. The other selected sites are under further investigation.

With or without branches, larger regions can have several innovation areas within its borders. An interesting example in The Netherlands is the Eindhoven region (figure 7) which has a mix of co-innovation parks, science parks, university campus, so-called creative factories (a cluster of creative or innovative small firms in an old factory). To profit from such a constellation and in general of an overrepresentation of innovative companies just innovation area management will not be sufficient. Regional management is needed to link innovation companies, institutions and innovation areas. Such a strategic regional cooperation between all relevant parties is also a good starting point to link the region to global networks and become a hub in these networks (some information on networks on a higher geographical scale will be presented later on).

Figure 7: Eindhoven region (The Netherlands) as an example of an innovative region with several focal points Eindhoven

Regional cooperation

The combination of different types of innovation areas with regional cooperation between parties involved, has made the Eindhoven region a key player in innovation and in global innovation networks. The Eindhoven region promotes itself as Brainport. Main goal of Brainport management is not the development of innovation areas but is achieving economic growth. The focus is primarily on innovation networks and the business environment that is needed to develop and sustain these networks. There is no direct link between the management of the innovation areas and regional management.

The region is now working on a new strategy: Brainport Next Generation to be able to adapt to new developments. They will move towards a Multi Helix model which also involves citizens, customers, consumers, investors, designers, artists and corporations. It is expected that by broadening the scope faster implementation and an accelerating rate of innovation will be possible. Brainport wants to achieve breakthrough projects and ‘living labs’ will be set up by strong consortiums of innovative companies, knowledge institutions and social partners.

Another example of regional economic cooperation is Science Port Holland which was founded in 2008 and is a regional partnership of the municipalities of Delft and Rotterdam and the Technical University of Delft. Together they worked towards the realization of an attractive business environment within the region Delft – Rotterdam for knowledge-intensive companies. One of the tasks of Science Port Holland was the development of five innovation areas. Today the name of the organisation has changed into InnovationQuarter and there is no longer a focus on developing innovation areas. The focus today is much more on the regional-economic aspects of innovation. “The mission of InnovationQuarter is to strengthen the regional economy by supporting and stimulating the innovation potential of the area. In close cooperation with all major corporations, educational and research institutions – like the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Delft University of Technology and Leiden University – and government organisations, InnovationQuarter supports technological developments, encourages entrepreneurship and invests in start-up companies.”

Hubs in global networks

At the regional level linkages between companies and institutions are easy to establish. A good functioning of regional networks, together with other factors (such as labour market, infrastructure, living environment, etc.) can make a region and its innovation areas a success. Although these regional networks or ecosystems are crucial, most important are the higher level networks: national and international, which are in first instance determined by the linkages of individual companies and institutions. Information on innovative developments is such a valuable asset that in fact distances do not matter. Today worldwide communication has become so easy that innovation often happens on a global scale. “The innovation activities are becoming borderless, yet interconnected. Thus, the future success of innovation ecosystems is measured increasingly in the abilities of innovation actors (and core organisations) to connect and manage talent, partnerships, clusters and practical innovation processes – in combining the local knowledge base into the global innovation power grid” (Launonen and Vitanen, 2011). In a survey among entrepreneurs established on Dutch STPs 64% acknowledged the following statement: “”If it is about really crucial knowledge for my business, distant is no issue. If necessary, I will travel to the other end of the world to gain this knowledge”.

Results from the same research project seem to suggest that size and constellation of innovation areas seem to play a role in the linkages and the intensity with which an innovation area or a region is taken up in global networks. Leiden Bioscience Park in the western part of The Netherlands is a rather stand-alone development in its region, whereas – as shown before – the Eindhoven region has a number of innovation areas and a strong regional cooperation of stakeholders involved. It is interesting to see that the companies in Leiden Bioscience Park are much more interested in global linkages than Eindhoven is, whereas the companies established on High Tech Campus Eindhoven show strong local and regional linkages, demonstrating the strong regional network (figure 8).

Figure 8: regional focus of companies on two Dutch science parks

Focus eindhoven en leiden

To conclude

It must have become clear that buildings are no longer the main aspect of science parks and – more broadly – innovation areas, but that community building and networking are essential. This distinguishes this concept from industrial parks, business parks and office parks. Which doesn’t alter the fact that ultimately the businesses and institutions located in the innovation areas also need a roof above their heads. In view of this, specific requirements can be placed on buildings, particularly from the desires for community building and networking. For instance, pedestrian flows, the creation of meeting points, concentration of catering and restaurant facilities where pedestrian flows meet, creative work environments, etc. For the successful management of a science park, it is crucial that the different layers in the social-spatial structure of a science park are recognised and are connected: the infrastructure, the buildings and the networks. This actually makes an interdisciplinary set up of the management team an absolute necessity.

In light of the developments outlined here, it is obvious that new innovation areas should be developed in accordance with a modern plan. This means they are embedded in the regional economy and are part of broadly set up innovation programs. All of that in an attractive spatial setting with real estate which optimally facilitates this specific way of working. This can only be successful if these developments are managed from an integral management philosophy. It concerns not only the management, though also the nature and the design of the buildings, the quality of the surroundings and the possibilities for meetings etc. The older science parks and co-innovative parks are not sufficiently geared to do this. If they want to keep up with the increasingly faster paced developments in the area of innovations, a physical and functional redevelopment will be required, including a reorientation of the management.

Quoted literature

  • Christiaanse, K. (2007), Campus and the City.
  • Curvelo Magdaniel, Flavia (2016), Technology campuses and cities. A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level. Delft, The Netherlands): Technical University.
  • European Commission (2013), Setting up, managing and evaluating EU science and technology parks.
  • Kakko, Ilkka (2013), The Fundamentals of Third Generation Science Park Concept. Paper for the UNESCO-WTA International Training Workshop, Daejeon, Korea.
  • Launonen, Martti, and Jukka Viitanen (2011), Hubconcepts. Helsinki, Finland.
  • Nilina, Anna; Josep Pique; Luis Sanz (red.): Areas of innovation in a global world. IASP (e-book).
  • Sanz, L. (2016), Understanding Areas of Innovation. In Anna Nilina, Josep Pique, Luis Sanz (red.): Areas of innovation in a global world. IASP (e-book).

 

 

The importance of an integrated approach; from balancing between real estate, concept, and management to the value of innovation programmes

Paul Jansen MSc, Caudata Consult / Arup / Innovation Area Development Partnership

Chiel van Dijen MSc, Kadans Science Partner / Innovation Area Development Partnership

Tom Minderhoud MSc, UNStudio / Innovation Area Development Partnership

Laurens Tait MSc, Arup / Innovation Area Development Partnership

Executive summary

Years of experience in the development of science & technology parks and industrial innovation campuses all over the world taught us the importance of a comprehensive approach, but more importantly the relevance of innovation programmes linked to modern innovation areas. These ‘soft’ innovation programmes mostly focus on the joint development of knowledge, new business cases and connecting talent from diverse backgrounds.

Case studies from the Netherlands teach us that these innovation programmes are already a basic precondition to a successful innovation area. The content of the programmes (knowledge exchange, financial vouchers to support business cases, connecting talent, business development support, etc.) are important but the main theme and distinguishing brand factor becomes the defining aspect. The key take away is that these programmes are crucial to establish a ‘soul’ and specific ‘flavour’ to the park, campus and its community.

Economic relevance

Knowledge and innovation are essential elements for the economies of most countries. With a successful innovation policy, one cannot ignore the physical environment that businesses (both large and small) require in order to successfully execute their work and ideas and generate/share knowledge, all focused on creating innovative products and services. These companies often require special buildings that may require large investments. Buildings may include offices as well as laboratories, clean rooms, small-scale (test) production units, and so on. These sites may thrive in many places, but economic researchers assume that a concentration of such buildings (and thus innovative companies) results in added value for all companies involved. Although research into these assumptions shows quite variable results, this assumed added value has resulted in a clustering of companies in numerous science parks. While numbers are difficult to provide, one indicator may be the number of members of the International Association of Science Parks & Areas of Innovation currently approximately 400.

Development in ‘science parks’

 The development of science parks, innovation districts and areas is far more complex than developing a regular business park or work location. Given the target audience and the specific requirements laid down by the involved entrepreneurs and institutions with regards to the built environment, the surroundings and facilities, the development of a science park requires a well-considered integral plan on the urban level, but also clear ideas about the management of the park, funding, programme guidelines for buildings, real estate financing, innovation programmes and so on.

Striking a balance between the hard elements (infrastructure, real estate, other facilities) and the softer elements, like governance, management and innovation programmes is crucial for a successful innovation area[i]. The commonly agreed preconception is that a comprehensive approach is essential for an area to be successfully developed, but the complex nature of an innovation area, makes it increasingly important to work in an integrated team. Numerous disciplines play a role, but the triad of market research through spatial concept into an urban master plan is crucial. The Innovation Area Development Partnership (IADP) is a recently founded Dutch initiative that provides an iterative cross-fertilisation approach, world class knowledge and unique services.

Due to the particular nature of innovation areas, establishing such areas and monitoring their quality is not easy. For this purpose, the Innovation Area Development Partnership has developed a conceptual model that provides a first concise checklist to assess whether all ingredients are present in the development of an innovation area. If issues are missing, it should be immediately clear that (additional) attention must be paid to these specific aspects. But above all, using this model, the correlation between various programmes, actors, management, real estate, infrastructure becomes clear. By applying this model in various developments around the world, the IADP is currently validating the proceeds of this model in concrete projects.

In our opinion the link between market (potential) and the urban master plan (product) is essential. By applying market research, the target group, the functional concept, the financial viability and the functional programme of requirements will be clarified. The market research however, has a broader goal than only providing insight into market potential, it also describes the long term strategic development trajectory.

In the development of innovation areas, the redevelopment of existing sites and the creation of innovation districts a modern ‘master’ should be followed nowadays. This means that the parks and/or innovation areas are embedded in the regional economy, are part of broad-based innovation programmes and are managed by an integral management philosophy. The aim is to design this in an attractive organisation with modern real estate and inviting surroundings, that optimally facilitate this new way of working and co-creation and innovation. The activities within innovation networks now transcend a single innovation area, often having a regional, national or even international focus. Furthermore, another characteristic is that they are usually the result of a unique combination of public and private ownership.

The potential of this new generation of science parks, co-creation and innovation parks and innovation districts to act as a motor (substantial driver) for the regional economy, is now generally accepted. However, limited research has been done on the success factors for a comprehensive development (hard and soft elements) of these sites and areas. Still we see developments driven by real estate demands on the one side or autonomous regional innovation programmes on the other. The most important factor is to know how to connect both sides of the spectrum in order to contribute substantially to the regional economy in the long term.

Before we present some thoughts on this topic from a Dutch perspective we would like to show the development in time from science parks, industrial innovation campus to innovation districts, including their management and the offered services. To our opinion there are currently three main types of innovation areas.

Science Parks

 When talking about the clustering of innovative companies the science park is the oldest concept in relative terms. Since the rise of science parks in the early fifties, quite a few definitions have been introduced. For example, the IASP places strong emphasis on the science park as an organisation of professionals committed to exchanging information flows between companies and research institutions, promoting innovation in companies and assisting starters and spin-off businesses. However, Hansson (2004) focuses more on appearance and, on the basis of a number of definitions, concludes that science parks almost always have a university in close physical proximity, focus on knowledge and high tech companies and include a special organization that helps starters. We support the definition of the IASP. We believe science parks are primarily about stimulating innovation through well-functioning networks. Property and area development are crucial, but are nevertheless of secondary importance.

The development of science parks is a relatively recent phenomenon: of all European science parks, only 4% were established before 1980. 27% were established in the 1980s and the rest thereafter (EC, 2014). Science parks are primarily an urban or, even more so, a metropolitan phenomenon. Judging from the membership of the IASP, only 6% of parks are located outside of cities and 40% can be found in cities with well over a million inhabitants.

Two-thirds of the science parks in Europe are situated on university grounds and 17% are located no less than 5 km away from such institutions. Earlier IASP research has shown that worldwide, approx. 40% of all science parks have an on-site university or one located in their immediate vicinity. The absence of a clear link with a university may result in a relatively ineffective park (Ratinho et al., 2007). But inefficiency may also occur if the concept is not taken seriously and companies only establish themselves in such parks for their public image and appearance. Moreover, the relationship with the university is not necessarily or solely based on intense knowledge sharing between the research institute and companies based in the park. The availability of various facilities and a pool of students (interns) and graduates play a significant role and are sometimes even more important than the actual sharing of knowledge (Van Dinteren and Pfaff, 2011; EC, 2014). It should not necessarily come as a surprise that companies don not solely focus on adjacent universities for knowledge sharing and co-innovation. When talking about crucial knowledge or information, these transcend the decision to establish oneself in a certain region (Weterings and Ponds, 2007). Nevertheless, it is these relationships between companies and knowledge institutions that distinguish science parks from regular business or office parks. Science park management teams (the fact that there are separate management teams is another factor that makes these parks unique) are often committed to these relationships and try to promote cooperation between individual companies and companies and universities. This allows for the creation of an informal network (‘local buzz’), resulting in substantial positive effects when creating innovation networks between local actors (Capello and Morrison, 2005). At the same time, one could write an entire book about the differences of opinion on this aspect.

Although the stimulation of networks, cooperation and knowledge sharing are essential to well-functioning area management, attention is equally paid to the creation of a community. One could consider the networks as communities, but when talking about communities, these are often less ‘strict’. Communities involve informal contact between employees, meeting each other at seminars, organizing sports events, concerts, and so on. By applying these principles in a well-designed environment creativity is promoted.

The Industrial Co-Innovation Park

Earlier parts of this paper have focused on the relationship between science parks and universities. At the same time, a science park may also develop itself around a different major research institution. For example, even a company may act as the pivot. In the latter case, it is better to speak of an ‘(industrial) co-innovation park’. Where the crystallization point in a science park is the university, in a co-innovation park this is a leading industrial company. Examples include the DSM Industrial & Biotech Campus (DSM, Delft, Netherlands), Kodak’s Eastman Business Park (Rochester, USA), the AUDI Ingolstadt site (Germany), the Luxembourg Automotive Campus (established around Goodyear’s Luxembourg Innovation Center and IEE s.a. sensing solutions) and Chemelot Campus (DSM, Sittard/Geleen, Netherlands).

Such developments are the result of company strategies, focused on co-innovation: the cooperation with other companies and institutions to develop innovative, creative solutions and products. Nowadays it has become harder for companies to keep up with changing technology, economy and markets by innovating solely by themselves. Technology in particular has become so specialised that nobody can afford to do everything at the highest level on their own. Cooperation with other companies, institutions and universities is required. To succeed, businesses must overcome their deep-seated fear of knowledge sharing. Fortunately, in many cases they were able to do so: these days, it has become popular to view cooperation with strategic partners as essential in the development of technological innovations.

Continuous innovations across organizational boundaries may lead a company to the idea of establishing an industrial co-innovation park on its site (or adjacent to it). Precondition is that the company must understand the dynamics of inter-organisational networks and develops – or has already developed – skills in managing networks and facilitating network processes.

The practical possibilities for establishing a co-innovation park, in terms of available space, are often attributable to the downsizing of activities or excessive hectares of expansion reserve. Downsizing may partly occur by offshoring activities, but may also be related to changing production conditions. For example, these days the manufacturing of semiconductors requires less and less space. So, setting up an industrial co-innovation park can be attractive if the leading company:

strongly advocates the idea of innovation and wants to innovate in close cooperation with its suppliers (open innovation or co-innovation); is established in a region that has the characteristics that stimulate innovation, the space required by other companies and is able to take care of the qualities that are asked for to make such a park a success.

This does not mean that co-innovation always requires physical proximity of the firms and institutions involved, but being located in the same park makes it easier to communicate. Moreover, companies situated on such integrated industrial areas may share the material supplies, utilities and services focusing on – for example – safety, quality, personnel and the environment.

Innovation Districts

A relatively new phenomenon in the field of innovation is the innovation district. In an innovation district, the cooperation between companies and institutions is still essential, but the concept differs in specific ways from the two aforementioned districts. First of all, these districts are often located inside urban areas, whereas most science parks are located on the outskirts of cities, in suburban locations. Moreover, innovation districts are often not newly developed, but are formed after a restructuring of an existing situation. As a result, an innovation district often has a mixture of purposes, including housing. In organisational terms, this often means a shift from the triple helix to the quadruple helix. And whereas science parks often place a strong emphasis on technical disciplines, an innovation district often takes a broader approach and thus offers room for a wide variety of creative industries and consulting firms. The link with a university may be less strong, but may partly be replaced with auxiliary branches. In addition, specialisation is sometimes not a key aspect of these districts. For example, 22@Barcelona focuses on four different clusters: Media, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Medical Technologies (MedTech), Energy and Design.

Similar to other districts, innovation districts have the requirements of good, dedicated management that encourages the creation of a community and networking between established companies and institutions. And compared to industrial campuses, there is often a leading company or institution (hospital, university, research institute).

Sanz (2016) describes an innovation district[1] as follows: “a designated zone with its own specific management team, whose main objectives include economic development via the promotion and attraction of selective innovative business for which specific services are provided or made available, and that may also include residential and cultural zones or facilities, or be embedded in urban spaces having such facilities, and with which the economic aspects of the area of innovation interact”.

Science parks, innovation districts and industrial innovative campuses are different concepts, especially in terms of target groups and physical form. At the same time, they show strong similarities in terms of work environment and management. Proper management – both in physical and functional terms – is a prerequisite for all three. Looking at the three districts together, they are all part of the overarching concept on an ‘innovation area’

From physical environment to work environment

Whereas during the early days of science parks the focus was often on physical development, over the year’s people have started to realise that science parks require a completely different approach. About two decades ago, the adage ‘brains, not bricks’ was introduced. This broke with a science park as mere property development. At the same time, this doesn’t mean that the physical environment isn’t vitally important in stimulating the process of creativity, interaction and innovation (Van Dinteren & Keeris, 2014). The importance of this is even increasing now that people are realising that an attractive (physical) environment contributes to creativity and competitiveness. Here we could make a distinction between facilities for employees and facilities for companies.

The sharing of facilities for companies, which people hope will lead to knowledge sharing and synergy, is a major reason why companies establish themselves on a campus or science park. This aspect is more important than the actual possibilities of cooperating with the university itself, as shown by a survey among entrepreneurs established at Dutch science parks or campuses. Besides the presence of a young student population, the availability of information systems, laboratories and clean rooms is also important (Van Dinteren & Pfaff, 2011).

On the other hand, when talking about facilities for employees (including ambiance created by buildings, design and landscaping), management has the following reason for their existence: if employees enjoy their work, they simply work more effectively. If they work more effectively, this subsequently has a positive effect on productivity and creativity. Ultimately this leads to better outcomes for businesses. Over two thirds of entrepreneurs at Dutch science parks (completely) agree with the statement that, “given the increasingly tight labour market for highly educated people, it is essential that a science park offers an optimal working environment” (Van Dinteren & Pfaff, 2011). This involves extensive amenities (e.g. shops, hairdressers, restaurants, fitness centres) and an attractively landscaped park with recreational facilities (walking and running routes, meeting places, and so on). A concept such as ‘Enjoy Work’ therefore doesn’t primarily focus on the target group, but on creating a comfortable working environment (see www.enjoy-work.com; Van Dinteren, 2007).

Dutch case – Leiden Bio Science Park – Astellas’ Mirai House’

 In the Netherlands, the design of the Astellas ‘Mirai House’ is a great example of a shift in emphasis from the physical environment to the work environment. IADP-partner UNStudio was involved in designing the Research and Development Headquarter for the international pharmaceutical firm Astellas on a prominent location within the bio science park. The European headquarters of Astellas in Leiden, Mirai house, aims to benefit from the knowledge available locally. In this way Astellas aspires to offer excellent treatment options for doctors and patients and to ensure that the medicines developed follow the regulations applicable in the individual countries of the EU.

During the development of medical treatments, Astellas mobilizes external resources and proactively involves partners at every step of the R&D process. In the early discovery phases Astellas collaborates both with acclaimed academic institutions and with public and private organizations to complement the available own knowledge. Essential for this co-creation is the organization of the science park and the location of the headquarters within the innovation park. The building is seamlessly and physically embedded in the park by providing clear sightlines and creating a pleasant, open and transparent working environment for Astellas employees, in addition to an agreeable and welcoming gesture to their international visitors.

UNStudio proposed a development that put an emphasis on an innovative mix of functional use and that offers architectural quality and new urban interaction. In the public space surrounding the building an emphasis is set on the human scale and on pedestrian and bicycle movement to encourage human interaction and facilitate social connections.

The organisation and materialisation of the building ensures clear views towards each of the three functional areas within the main framed volume surrounding a courtyard: offices, laboratories and entrance hall. The floor plans in the interior are flexible and based on the campus concept, where emphasis is placed on communication.

In line with the DNA of the park the building volume of the Mirai House aims to integrate the research and laboratories in an organic way with the more organizational additional requirements of a large company such as offices and ancillary functions. By streamlining these operational aspects Astellas strives to connect with other partners in the R&D process and to stay at the forefront of innovative scientific discoveries. In the Leiden Bio Science Park there are around 106 tenants linked to bio sciences institutions and medical companies employing a total of around 18.000 professionals in a range of companies from start-ups to well established multi-nationals. Together they form a symbiotic work sphere supporting research, education, networking facilities and business partnerships.

Innovation programmes and their relevance to the work environment

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) definition of innovation is “production or adoption, assimilation, and exploitation of a value-added novelty in economic and social spheres; renewal and enlargement of products, services, and markets; development of new methods of production; and establishment of new management systems. It is both a process and an outcome”. A 2013 survey of literature on innovation found over 40 definitions. Definitions of innovation programmes are even more diverse. Within the IADP we talk about innovation programmes as a cluster of activities aiming at establishing innovation (see above). Activities are most often about:

– Knowledge exchange;

– Support new business cases (by financial vouchers);

– Connecting talent from diverse backgrounds;

– General business development support

– network activities.

Dutch cases – innovation programmes – work environment relevance

 In general, Dutch innovation programmes are not always linked to a specific science park or industrial innovation campus. Sometimes there is not even an urban link and the focus of these programmes is purely at the regional economy, like the Dutch Rijk van Nijmegen 2025 innovation programme for instance.

What we learn from other Dutch innovation programmes is that these really add to the work environment by their community and business stimulating role. Sometimes these programmes even play a crucial role in establishing ‘physical’ knowledge intensive real estate by offering subsidized ‘start-rents’ and by doing so offering an interesting business case for real estate investors.

Novio Tech Campus, Nijmegen

Novio Tech campus in city of Nijmegen offers 10,000 m² of state-of-the-art research infrastructure and accommodation for entrepreneurs and researchers in the Life Sciences, Health and HighTech sectors. In close corporation with its partners Kadans Science Partner and SMB Life Sciences, Novio Tech Campus offers entrepreneurs access to the expertise, facilities and (inter-)national networks of companies and knowledge institutions. They also provide start-ups and young companies an integrated package of facilities and support for their enterprise.

In particular SMB played a crucial role in the establishment of the campus. Without this support programme the initial business case of the first building of the campus would have been much more difficult. Later on, the role of the programme changed and is incorporated in the new Business Generation Health & Technology programme. Recently the Business Generation Health & Technology (BGHH) has been established as implementation programme with the aim to increase employment by innovative entrepreneurship particularly in the (top) sectors life sciences & health (LSH), high tech systems & materials (HTSM) and chemistry to stimulate and support. There are three core activities defined focused on assisting innovative enterprises (start-ups, scale-ups and grown-ups). With three work programmes:

– an incubation work programme for (very new) start-ups

– an acceleration of work programme for scale-ups

– an activation work programme for established SMEs (grown-ups)

In addition, there are the following support activities.

– Marketing & communication to put the ecosystem on the map

– Scouting and screening of new business opportunities

– Knowledge sharing events for entrepreneurs and partners

Although the Novio Tech SMB support programme was crucial to the initial business case of the campus, its role has changed and is nowadays important for the ‘soul’ of the campus, at least according to the CEO of Novio Tech Campus.

Brightlands Chemelot Campus, Geleen

Brightlands Chemelot campus in Geleen is home to a vibrant and fast-growing open community of ground-breaking and world-leading companies and knowledge institutes. Facilities include the latest R&D and manufacturing infrastructures. The Brightlands Innovation Factory is the entrepreneurial backbone of the Brightlands ecosystem states that world-class industry knowledge and expertise are coupled with expert supported programmes, value-added services and facilities, and access to funding. The business development team at Brightlands Chemelot Campus is the partner for growth on campus. The team helps to shape new businesses by combining IP positions, facilities, networks and venture capital, and more, all of which strengthen the clusters within the campus’s prime scientific sectors and provide services in the campus’s Service Boulevard.

Brightlands Chemelot Campus is home to the Maastricht Science Programme and Chemelot Innovation and Learning Labs (CHILL). This institution offers chemistry courses for students and professionals. Building and nurturing a community of this kind takes effort. Brightlands Chemelot Campus believes in the efficacy of community-building initiatives, such as seminars, network meetings, TEDx events, sports, and vitality programmes such as BtheMove, and a range of effective campus communication channels. These ‘soft activities’ are valued of more importance to the work environment than the actual physical real estate and shared facilities.

DSM Campus, Delft

At this campus, various successful public-private R&D programmes are running and available to the companies, universities and other stake holders. The Yes!Delft Incubator, for instance, offers facilities and services in a high-tech centre, including office space, meeting facilities, technical workspaces, coaching services and regular networking events. Europe’s largest public-private innovation partnership was created in 2010 by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. Climate KIC brings together 162 partners to educate and develop innovation to solve challenges caused by climate change. DSM, TU Delft and Deltares are all part of the Dutch Climate-KIC centre and by doing so offering a unique work environment in Delft.

Pivot Life Science Park, Oss

In another Dutch example the regional innovation programme the “Power of New Business Oss” offers companies at the Pivot Life Science Park in Oss financial vouchers in order to test new business cases. Specific, and expensive, early drug recovery tests are supported by this regional innovation programme. This is an example of a very tailored support from a more abstract programme, but also at Pivot Life Science Park Oss the general attitude towards the activities of the innovation programme is that it offers a unique flavour to the campus community and its work environment. By talking to the entrepreneurs, it became obvious that the actual business stimulating activities are valued, but its community engagement activities even more.

It is also seen in Oss that the brand that the programme adds to the campus management package strengthens the actual content.

In conclusion

It can be concluded that a balanced development of modern innovation areas is an important precondition for success in the short and long term. In this paper, we have focused on the value of soft factors to the work environment, in particular Dutch innovation programmes, and the need for a comprehensive approach.

Years of involvement of the partners of the IADP in the (re) development of several Dutch science parks and industrial innovation campuses learns that in the Dutch practice this principle is widely accepted but not always valued correctly. In some cases, there is still either a sharp focus on the real estate development and operation or on regional innovation programmes. Management of an integrated business case is a rarity, although some examples described in this paper show otherwise. The ownership situation in Dutch science parks usually doesn’t help either. Often a separate real estate company focuses on a balanced real estate exploitation, with limited attention for the structuring and management of innovation networks. Even if the importance of these networks and communities is recognized as vital to a regional economy.

Physical hardware (real estate, infrastructure), such as incubator centres, laboratories and meeting places are of course important, but only in a facilitating sense. Based on an analysis of several Dutch science parks (true innovation areas do not exist yet in the Netherlands) and innovation programmes learning points can be derived with regards to the comprehensive approach, the management, ownership, and content of innovation programmes. It can be stated that although an innovation programme is an important pre-condition in establishing a science park, it is not a unique selling point anymore. In one way or the other these programmes are part of the management package of almost all science park or campus in the Netherlands.

Key take away is that science parks and industrial innovation areas develop into modern innovation areas, including their management and the offered services. Innovation programmes have become an important element of the offered service package and sometimes play a crucial role in the initial business case of the real estate. The programmes (and its activities) are very valuable to the work environment, but are so common that there not considered as a unique selling point. Most important is that these programmes create a ‘soul’ and specific ‘flavour’ to the park, campus and its community. At least, that is what the analysis of various Dutch cases teaches us.

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[1] Factually speaking, Sanz refers to an Innovation Area. We prefer to reserve this term for the different concepts combined. According to Sanz’ definition, an innovation area can be both considered at a sub-local and regional level. When it comes to the regional level, we prefer to use the term innovative region.

[i] We consider an innovation area as an overall idea for different concepts such as science and technology parks, (industrial) co-innovation parks and innovation districts

By Daniël Mutsaers, PT Finance, partner IADP

How often didn’t we say that “if we had been involved in the process at an earlier stage, things would have looked very differently”…

Figuur 2 Daniel

As the hospitality experts of The Innovation Area Development Partnership, we are often called upon to create added value to campuses and their buildings in such a way that campus and building residents feel optimally facilitated. And too often we find out that the power of hospitality in the design phase is constantly underestimated.

Of course there is always (usually…) sufficient attention paid to ensuring enough parkings, a proper heating/cooling system, clean toilets and a trendy interior with consultation areas, for example. However, we experience that people, when equipping specific facilities, reason too much from the logical real estate mindset instead of from a more sensitive hospitality approach.

What exactly is “Hospitality?” Another trendy catch-all term is “Experience.” What it is all about is that the daily campus resident and his/her guests should feel like a fish in water. Emphasizing the word ‘feel’. That is, of course, by definition a personal interpretation. And therefore, it is difficult to interpret. On the one hand, it is all about the very small details. However, is really good coffee a small detail? Did you know that 35% of organisations do not offer their guest any coffee at all?
It is also about the heartfelt smile of the entire hospitality team.  A welcoming entrance is important, but having a strong foundation in order is also essential. For one thing, it is important that the coffee corner is situated along the walking lines from the building’s entrance, but at the same time it should breathe the intimacy of a living room. And preferably in such a way that it also combines the reception of guests. Cost optimization!

For a campus environment, the foundation is a little bit more complex than that. For example, because of the mix of different types and international campus residents, because of access regimes, which make a warm welcome difficult, and, not least, the mixture of old and new buildings. Community building support hospitality, but that needs the investment of a lot of energy. Also, the consideration between security (“a feeling of safety”) and hospitality causes campus organisations to relapse into traditional constructional solutions, instead of thinking about solutions that integrate security and hospitality.

You may think we are stating the obvious… but we would like to show you around various campuses and buildings, where people, on a daily basis, still experience obstacles from the real-estate-driven choices made during the development phase.

And then, the business model. Real estate managers are becoming increasingly and rapidly convinced of the importance of hospitality when this involves a clear profit. The sum of a higher productivity, less absence and returning customers, is not very complicated. This is especially the case when combining various hospitality functions as much as possible from the process chain in the front office

But probably even more important: committing talent to you! By facilitating a top working environment. Things that Google and Facebook have been doing for several years for their offices. In our catering tenders, we more and more often see that employers are willing to invest again in an attractive lunch concept in combination with high standard fresh-bean coffee.

These are all things that optimize the real estate value. Happy employers, because of happy campus employees, and therefore happy residents who are willing to pay a higher price per m2. The rental value ladder shows this effect:

Figuur Daniel

Our advice: involve specialists from the hospitality point of view, in a timely manner, as of the design phase. This prevents any unnecessary interventions afterwards to optimally facilitate your campus residents and guests. Substantiated by solid business cases which demonstrably pay off your investment.

Would you like more information about what IADP can add to your campus and buildings, with regard to hospitality, or would you really like us to show you around various reference buildings and projects? Please contact Paul Jansen (+31 6 535 763 99) or Daniël Mutsaers (+31 6 215 803 99), business partners at IADP.

Prof. dr. Jacques van Dinteren, Innovation Area Development Partnership / Zjak Consult

Paul Jansen MSc., Innovation Area Development Partnership / Caudata

The science park concept is not static. Given the nature of the activities and the institutions it focuses on, it should not be considered likely that this would be a static concept. Until the beginning of this century this concept was predominantly viewed as a ‘stand-alone’ activity and often primarily as a real estate development. Currently, a science park (and similar concepts) are increasingly being considered as a focal point in a network of innovative companies and institutions. The management of science parks has kept up with these changes over time. New developments demand further changes. At the same time, new concepts have developed and the science park does not have the exclusive right to being and becoming a focal point of innovations.

Innovation areas

In the early stages of the development of science parks the emphasis was placed on real estate. Especially during the last three decades this has significantly changed and the primary focus has shifted to stimulating innovation. That is the first trend. A second trend is an increase in scale. As science parks have reached the limits of their growth, occasionally “branches” developed in other parts of the region, which stresses the importance of previously mentioned networking even more. One out of three members of the IASP (International Association of Science Parks and Areas of Innovation) have two or more locations. Furthermore, those ‘branches’ can not only be found in the regions which are strongly focussed on innovation, but also at other work locations such as industrial co-innovative science parks (developed around a leading innovative company instead of a university), creative factories (creative companies under one roof) and innovation areas. The last category is relatively new and can be defined as “a designated zone with its own specific management team, whose main objectives include economic development via the promotion and attraction of selective innovative business for which specific services are provided or made available, and that may also include residential and cultural zones or facilities, or be embedded in urban spaces having such facilities, and with which the economic aspects of the area of innovation interact” (Sanz, 2016). The management of such a development is, as already was the case in science parks and co-innovative parks, still important, though functional blending is a relatively new element in this concept. The link with a university might be less strong, though can be partially overcome by having a “branch” in a different location.

Figure 1: Eindhoven region (The Netherlands) as an example of an innovative region with several focal points Eindhoven

It is important to establish the fact that the scale can vary widely. Ann Arbor SPARK (U.S.A.) covers an entire region, while 22@Barcelona is 200 ha. All the more reason to distinguish between innovative regions with multiple focal points (to illustrate this: see figure 1) and innovation districts which, in terms of scale, are comparable to co-innovation parks and science parks. Innovation area will then be the umbrella term for science parks, industrial co-innovation parks and innovation districts.

Except for the fact that innovative regions currently may have multiple focal points and a network of companies and institutions which are located in those innovation areas can be created, and companies and institutions which are located in other parts of the region must establish that these innovation areas and innovative regions are also included in the worldwide networks (telecommunication, travel options etc.) through the process of globalisation.

The figure below sketches the development over the past decades. It is an ideal-type image which will rarely apply to a specific innovation area. Figure 2 mainly shows that currently much more emphasis is placed on networks and (therefore also) on the regional embedding of an innovation area.

Figure 2: ideal development of the innovation area concept

Ontwikkleing management

Changing management

The right section of this rough sketch of the development of the concept also shows the manner in which the management of these concepts must also adapt. Often this is all covered by the common denominator “park management”, though the scope of the tasks has become much broader, or can be addressed in a much broader manner. Whereas park management originally still strongly focussed on the maintenance of the real estate, it was fairly quickly combined with making services and facilities available, and subsequently by the wish to create a ‘community’ in the park. Firstly, the attention is focused on the employees. Joint festivities, sports events and having a drink together should help to develop this. The next step (once more: in an ideal typical process) is to connect the people who work in the park as well as the companies. Match making, organising seminars, support with patent applications are all matters which are part of the extensive service package which the park management offers. Some parks take this one step further in the form of management encouraging serendipity.  Essentially it comes down to: how can people with different backgrounds be connected and collaborate, to enable new insights and ultimately new products to be developed through “pure coincidence” (serendipity)?  This may manifest itself in a building in which the concept resembles all kinds of creative work places which are popping up all over the place in which flexible, playfully designed spaces with all kinds of facilities and short lease periods are available for creative people, entrepreneurs and others. An example of this in a science park is the NetWork Oasis at the Joensuu Science Park (Finland). This concept will only become truly interesting when the idea of serendipity is combined with a method in which different researches and product developers with different characters and backgrounds are brought together. This is done via a step-by-step process including training camps and work sessions based on which teams are formed, which will then focus on the development of a new product (see Kakko, 2013). This has consequences for the management method, as shown in the table below. Not that this will make project management obsolete. The schedule shows that by including networking, and particularly from the perspective of serendipity, other skills are required from park managers and involved parties.

 Table 1: difference between project management and management of serendipity (Kakko, 2013)

Serendipity management

In line with the previously mentioned processes of increased scale, an increasing amount of attention is given to the park management organisation of the relationships with companies and knowledge institutions which are located outside the park, though in the region. Certainly in combination with the science park’s satellites, this can lead to an innovation area on a regional level.

Interdisciplinary management team

It must have become clear that buildings are no longer the main aspect of science parks and – more broadly – innovation areas, but that community and networking are essential. This distinguishes this concept from industrial parks, business parks and office parks. Which doesn’t alter the fact that ultimately the businesses and institutions located in the innovation areas also need a roof above their heads. In view of this, specific requirements can be placed on buildings, particularly from the desires for community building and networking. For instance, pedestrian flows, the creation of meeting points, concentration of catering and restaurant facilities where pedestrian flows meet, creative work environments, etc. For the successful management of a science park, it is crucial that the different layers in the social-spatial structure of a science park are recognised and are connected to: the infrastructure, the buildings and the networks. This actually makes an interdisciplinary set up of a park management team an absolute necessity.

Redevelopment

In light of the developments outlined here, it is obvious that new innovation areas should be developed in accordance with a modern plan. This means they are embedded in the regional economy and are part of broadly set up innovation programs. All of that in an attractive spatial setting with real estate which optimally facilitates this new manner of working. This can only be successful if these developments are managed from an integral management philosophy.

It concerns not only the management, though also the nature and the design of the buildings, the quality of the surroundings and the possibilities for meetings etc. The older science parks and co-innovative parks are not sufficiently geared to do this. If they want to keep up with the increasingly faster paced developments in the area of innovations, a physical and functional redevelopment will be required, including a reorientation of the management.

Quoted literature

  • Kakko, Ilkka (2013), The Fundamentals of Third Generation Science Park Concept. Paper for the UNESCO-WTA International Training Workshop, Daejeon, Korea.
  • Sanz, L. (2016), Understanding Areas of Innovation. In Anna Nilina, Josep Pique, Luis Sanz (red.): Areas of innovation in a global world. IASP (e-book).

 

Room for Knowledge Development: from Science Park to Innovation District

Prof. dr. Jacques van Dinteren, Innovation Area Development Partnership (IADP)[1] / Zjak Consult

Paul Jansen MSc., Innovation Area Development Partnership (IADP) / Caudata

Any services and knowledge economy includes numerous innovative companies and institutions that are engaged in research, data, knowledge and information and the acquisition and transmission thereof. For a large number of these organisations an office location is sufficient. However, when it comes to basic research – especially in terms of beta disciplines – there are often more stringent requirements. With a view to cooperation opportunities, appearance and work environment quality, some of these companies have a need for specific job site concepts that capitalize on these aspects, such as science parks and industrial campuses. Moreover, the past two decades have seen the rise of new concepts that will discussed in more detail in this paper.

 Knowledge and innovation are essential elements for most countries’ economies. With a successful innovation policy, one cannot ignore the physical environment that businesses (both large and small) require in order to successfully execute their work and ideas and generate/share knowledge, all focused on creating innovative products and services. These companies often require special buildings that may require large investments. Buildings may include offices as well as laboratories, clean rooms, small-scale (test) production units, and so on. These sites may thrive in many places, but economic researchers assume that a concentration of such buildings (and thus innovative companies) results in added value for all companies involved. Although research into these assumptions shows quite variable results, this assumed added value has resulted in a clustering of companies in numerous science parks. However, numbers are difficult to provide in the absence of a precise definition of such parks. One indicator may be the number of members of the International Association of Science Parks & Areas of Innovation (IASP; www.iasp.ws): currently approx. 400.

Science Parks

When talking about the clustering of innovative companies, relatively speaking, the science park is the oldest concept. Since the rise of science parks in the early fifties, quite a few definitions have been introduced. For example, the IASP places strong emphasis on the science park as an organisation of professionals committed to exchanging information flows between companies and research institutions, promoting innovation in companies and assisting starters and spin-off businesses. However, Hansson (2004) focuses more on appearance and, on the basis of a number of definitions, concludes that science parks almost always have a university in close physical proximity, focus on knowledge and high tech companies and include a special organization that helps starters. We support the definition of the IASP. We believe science parks are primarily about stimulating innovation through well-functioning networks. Property and area development are crucial, but are nevertheless of secondary importance.

The development of science parks is a relatively recent phenomenon: of all European science parks, only 4% were established before 1980. 27% were established in the 1980s and the rest thereafter (EC, 2014). Science parks are primarily an urban or, even more so, a metropolitan phenomenon. Judging from the membership of the IASP, only 6% of parks are located outside of cities and 40% can be found in cities with well over a million inhabitants.

Two-thirds of the science parks in Europe are situated on university grounds and 17% are located no less than 5 km away from such institutions. Earlier IASP research has shown that worldwide, approx. 40% of all science parks have an on-site university or one located in their immediate vicinity. The absence of a clear link with a university may result in a relatively ineffective park (Ratinho et al., 2007). But inefficiency may also occur if the concept is not taken seriously and companies only establish themselves in such parks for their public image and appearance. Moreover, the relationship with the university is not necessarily or solely based on intense knowledge sharing between the research institute and companies based in the park. The availability of various facilities and a pool of students (interns) and graduates play a significant role and are sometimes even more important than the actual sharing of knowledge (Van Dinteren and Pfaff, 2011; EC, 2014). It shouldn’t necessarily come as a surprise that companies don’t solely focus on adjacent universities for knowledge sharing and co-innovation. When talking about crucial knowledge or information, these transcend the decision to establish oneself in a certain region (Weterings and Ponds, 2007). Nevertheless, it is these relationships between companies and knowledge institutions that distinguish science parks from regular business or office parks. Science park management teams (the fact that there are separate management teams is another factor that makes these parks unique) are often committed to these relationships and try to promote cooperation between individual companies and companies and universities. This allows for the creation of an informal network (‘local buzz’), resulting in substantial positive effects when creating innovation networks between local actors (Capello and Morrison, 2005). At the same time, one could write an entire book about the differences of opinion on this aspect.

Although the stimulation of networks, cooperation and knowledge sharing are essential to well-functioning area management, attention is equally paid to the creation of a community. One could consider the networks as communities, but when talking about communities, these are often less ‘strict’. Communities involve informal contact between employees, meeting each other at seminars, organizing sports events, concerts, and so on. And all this in a well-designed environment that promotes creativity.

The Industrial Co-innovation Park

Earlier parts of this paper have focused on the relationship between science parks and universities. At the same time, a science park may also develop itself around a different major research institution. For example, even a company may act as the pivot. In the latter case, it is better to speak of an ‘(industrial) co-innovation park’. Where the crystallization point in a science park is the university, in a co-innovation park this is a leading industrial company. Examples include the DSM Industrial & Biotech Campus (DSM, Delft, Netherlands), Kodak’s Eastman Business Park (Rochester, USA), the AUDI Ingolstadt site (Germany), the Luxembourg Automotive Campus (established around Goodyear’s Luxembourg Innovation Center and IEE s.a. sensing solutions) and Chemelot Campus (DSM, Sittard/Geleen, Netherlands).

Such developments are the result of company strategies, focused on co-innovation: the cooperation with other companies and institutions to develop innovative, creative solutions and products. Nowadays it has become harder for companies to keep up with changing technology, economy and markets by innovating solely by themselves. Technology in particular has become so specialised that nobody can afford to do everything at the highest level on their own. Cooperation with other companies, institutions and universities is required. To succeed, businesses must overcome their deep-seated fear of knowledge sharing. Fortunately, in many cases they were able to do so: these days, it has become popular to view cooperation with strategic partners as essential in the development of technological innovations.

Continuous innovations across organizational boundaries may lead a company to the idea of establishing an industrial co-innovation park on its site (or adjacent to it). Precondition is that the company must understand the dynamics of inter-organisational networks and develops – or has already developed  – skills in managing networks and facilitating network processes.

The practical possibilities for establishing a co-innovation park, in terms of available space, are often attributable to the downsizing of activities or excessive hectares of expansion reserve. Downsizing may partly occur by offshoring activities, but may also be related to changing production conditions. For example, these days the manufacturing of semiconductors requires less and less space.

So, setting up an industrial co-innovation park can be attractive if the leading company:

  • strongly advocates the idea of innovation and wants to innovate in close cooperation with its suppliers (open innovation or co-innovation);
  • is established in a region that has the characteristics that stimulate innovation,
  • the space required by other companies and is able to take care of the qualities that are asked for to make such a park a success.

This is not to say that co-innovation always asks for physical proximity of the firms and institutions involved, but being located in same park makes it easier to communicate. Moreover, companies situated on such integrated industrial areas may share the material supplies, utilities and services focusing on – for example – safety, quality, personnel and the environment.

Innovation Districts

A relatively new phenomenon in the field of innovation is the innovation district. In an innovation district, the cooperation between companies and institutions is still essential, but the concept differs in specific ways from the two aforementioned districts. First of all, these districts are often located inside urban areas, whereas most science parks are located on the outskirts of cities, in suburban locations. Moreover, innovation districts are often not newly developed, but are formed after a restructuring of an existing situation. As a result, an innovation district often has a mixture of purposes, including housing. In organisational terms, this often means a shift from the triple helix to the quadruple helix. And whereas science parks often place a strong emphasis on beta disciplines, an innovation district often takes a broader approach and thus offers room for a wide variety of creative industries and consulting firms. The link with a university may be less strong, but may partly be replaced with auxiliary branches. In addition, specialisation is sometimes not a key aspect of these districts. For example, 22@Barcelona focuses on four different clusters: Media, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Medical Technologies (MedTech), Energy and Design.

Similar to other districts, innovation districts have the requirements of good, dedicated management that encourages the creation of a community and networking between established companies and institutions. And compared to industrial campuses, there is often a leading company or institution (hospital, university, research institute).

Sanz (2016) describes an innovation district[2] as follows: “a designated zone with its own specific management team, whose main objectives include economic development via the promotion and attraction of selective innovative business for which specific services are provided or made available, and that may also include residential and cultural zones or facilities, or be embedded in urban spaces having such facilities, and with which the economic aspects of the area of innovation interact”.

Science parks, innovation districts and industrial innovative campuses are different concepts, especially in terms of target groups and physical form. At the same time, they show strong similarities in terms of work environment and management. Proper management – both in physical and functional terms – is a prerequisite for all three. Looking at the three districts together, they are all part of the overarching concept on an ‘innovation area’

Work Environment

Whereas during the early days of science parks the focus was often on physical development, over the years people have started to realise that science parks require a completely different approach. About two decades ago, the adage ‘brains, no bricks’ was introduced. This broke with a science park as mere property development. At the same time, this doesn’t mean that the physical environment isn’t vitally important in stimulating the process of creativity, interaction and innovation (Van Dinteren en Keeris, 2014). The importance of this is even increasing now that people are realising that an attractive (physical) environment contributes to creativity and competitiveness. Here we could make a distinction between facilities for employees and facilities for companies.

The sharing of facilities for companies, which people hope will lead to knowledge sharing and synergy, is a major reason why companies establish themselves on a campus or science park. This aspect is even more important than the actual possibilities of cooperating with the university itself, as shown by a survey among entrepreneurs established at Dutch science parks or campuses. Besides the presence of a young student population, the availability of information systems, laboratories and clean rooms is also important (Van Dinteren en Pfaff, 2011).

On the other hand, when talking about facilities for employees (including ambiance created by buildings, design and landscaping), management has the following reason for their existence: if employees enjoy their work, they simply work more effectively. If they work more effectively, this subsequently has a positive effect on productivity and creativity. Ultimately this leads to better outcomes for businesses. Over two thirds of entrepreneurs at Dutch science parks (completely) agree with the statement that, “given the increasingly tight labour market for highly educated people, it is essential that a science park offers an optimal working environment” (Van Dinteren en Pfaff, 2011). This involves extensive amenities (e.g. shops, hairdressers, restaurants, fitness centres) and an attractively landscaped park with recreational facilities (walking and running routes, meeting places, and so on). A concept such as ‘Enjoy Work’ therefore doesn’t primarily focus on the target group, but on creating a comfortable working environment (see www.enjoy-work.com; Van Dinteren, 2007).

Towards a Conceptual Model

Due to the very particular nature of innovation areas, establishing such areas and monitoring their quality is not easy. So what aspects are essential in creating a successful innovation district? Previous blogs focused on regional factors (which the developer has little to no control of; see blog1) and the factors that affect the park itself (see blog2). In summary:

Tabel

Considering the aforementioned, then various aspects can be displayed a model as presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Towards a conceptual model of innovation areas

Conceptueel model ENG

As stated earlier, innovation districts must be developed in full. This conceptual model provides a tool and may function as a checklist to assess whether all ingredients are present in the development of an innovation district. If aspects are missing, then it should be immediately clear that (additional) attention must be paid to these aspects. But above all, using this model, the correlation between various programmes, actors, management, real estate, infrastructure becomes clear. By applying this model in various developments around the world, the IADP currently validates the proceeds of this model in concrete projects.

[1] The IADP is a collaboration between eight Dutch companies, active in areas including market research, concept development, urban planning, architecture, park management, financial advice and investments. See: iadp.co

[2] Factually speaking, Sanz refers to an Innovation Area. We prefer to reserve this term for the different concepts combined. According to Sanz’ definition, an innovation area can be both considered at a sub-local and regional level. When it comes to the regional level, we prefer to use the term innovative region.

Bibliography

  • Capello Roberta and Andrea Morrison (2005), An evaluation of the effectiveness of science parks in local knowledge creation: a territorial perspective. Paper for the 5th Triple Helix Conference. Turin.
  • Dinteren, Jacques van (2007), Enjoy work! Als leidend principe. Een nieuw type werklocatie. In: Real Estate Magazine (50), pp. 24-29.
  • Dinteren, Jacques van, Debbie Pfaff (2011), Science park: innovatie of imago? In: Real Estate Magazine, no. 32, pp. 32 – 37.
  • Dinteren, Jacques van, Willem Keeris (2014), Innovatie vraagt om investeren in R&D-vastgoed. In: Real Estate Research Quaterly, april, pp. 26 – 34.
  • EC (2014), Setting up, managing and evaluating EU science and technology parks. European Commission.
  • Hansson, Finn (2004), Science parks as knowledge organisations. The ‘ba’ in action? MPP working paper no. 15. Copenhagen Business School. Copenhagen.
  • Ratinho, Tiago, Elsa Henriques and Luís Maltes (2007). Science parks and business incubators: the Portuguese case. Paper for the European Investment Bank.
  • Sanz, L. (2016), Understanding Areas of Innovation. In Anna Nilina, Josep Pique, Luis Sanz (red.): Areas of innovation in a global world. IASP (e-book).
  • Weterings, Anet, and Roderik Ponds (2007), Regionale kennisnetwerken en innovatie. Rotterdam: NAi Uitgevers publishers.

Your own innovation campus

Strengthening your business

Prof. dr. Jacques van Dinteren, Zjak Consult

For today’s businesses, it is crucial to work together on innovation with other firms and organisations. Technology has become so specialised that no one can afford to do everything on their own. Co-creation and co-development with partner firms, institutions and universities are essential for being successful. Most new, successful products are the result of collaborative work between engineers, marketing experts, designers and often colleagues and academics as well. The benefits are lower costs, faster time to market and higher return on investment.

In this era of technology and innovation, science and technology parks are growing in number at an increasing pace since the first one was created in the 1950s. Less well known is the development which involves medium-sized and large innovative firms establishing their own ‘science park’. We call this an industrial innovation campus.

The industrial innovation campus differs from a general science park in various ways:

  • In essence it is all about the links between the host firm and the partner firms established on the company site, whereas the focus of firms located in a science park is clearly on the nearby university.
  • The inter-company links on a science park are generally less intense than those on an industrial campus.
  • Because an industrial campus is strategically important for the host firm, it will have an admission policy which will be much stricter than in most of the science parks.

Today, your firm may have the space and buildings available to set up such an industrial innovation campus and perhaps you have taken the strategic decision to consolidate your R&D on a single site. This might be the right time to invite other firms to your site to work together and enhance the innovation potential. Although it is possible to communicate worldwide with suppliers and other firms, proximity clearly makes communication easier. Especially when it is about strategies and innovation. That is why a campus can help to improve your business.

Is setting up a campus attractive?

The answer to the above question is “yes” if the leading firm

  • strongly advocates the idea of innovation and wants to innovate in close cooperation with its suppliers (open innovation or co-innovation);
  • is established in a region which has the characteristics that stimulate innovation and
  • has the space needed by other firms and can create the qualities required to make such an estate a success?

The last two questions are very similar to the questions that should be posed towards developing a science park. See my two blogs that have been published about these aspects:

For regional innovation climate see blog:  click here

For qualities of the site see blog: click here

figuur

So, let us concentrate here on the first question about the firm’s philosophy. Let us start with the observation that nowadays it has become harder for firms to keep up with the changing technology, economy and markets merely by innovating. Technology in particular has become so specialised that nobody can afford to do everything on its own at the highest level. Cooperation with other firms, institutions and universities is essential. To succeed, companies need to overcome their deep-seated fear of sharing and in many cases firms have been able to do so: it has become popular to view collaboration with strategic partners as essential resources in the development of technology innovations.

Continuous innovations across organisational boundaries might lead a firm to the idea of establishing an industrial innovation campus on its site (or adjacent to it). A precondition is that this firm understands the dynamics of interorganisational networks and develops – or has developed – skills in managing networks and facilitating network processes. Today, firms often have the space available for such an industrial innovation campus. They may have outsourced activities to other countries, need less space due to new technology or bought too much ground in the past, etc. This offers the opportunities for developing your own industrial innovation campus.

Some Dutch examples

Examples in the Netherlands include Chemelot (DSM, Sittard-Geleen), BioTech Campus (DSM, Delft), Novio Tech Campus (NXP, Nijmegen) and High Tech Campus (originally Philips, Eindhoven).

 

Novio Tech Campus, Nijmegen (The Netherlands)

Our market researchers and urban planners have formulated a restructuring plan for the business area of NXP semiconductors. NXP is concentrating its activities on its site and needs less space. This offers the opportunity to create the Novio Tech Campus where start-ups and other activities can find attractive accommodation. Focus is on health care and semiconductors, but other activities are also welcomed to stimulate crossovers.

DSM Industrial & Biotech Campus, Delft (The Netherlands)

Delft wants to present itself as a City of Technology. In order to take advantage of the huge potential in white biotechnology, DSM has the will and the resources at its disposal to provide the city with an important (economic) impulse. The consultants of Royal HaskoningDHV have therefore set out a strategic vision for the (re)development of the DSM site into a high quality Industrial & Biotech Campus. The aim is to create an attractive working climate and promote collaboration with knowledge organisations like Delft University of Technology and other firms working with DSM or in the same fields.

High Tech Automotive Campus, Helmond (The Netherlands)

Local businesses in the automotive industry, education and knowledge institutes and the municipality of Helmond took the initiative to develop an automotive science park, using the available space on the industrial estate where some firms in this industry were already established. The idea is to create an innovative and sustainable environment in which businesses can cooperate within the automotive sector. Starting from market research and a site analysis, a spatial functional concept has been designed that meets the requirements of the selected target groups. This concept has been translated into an ambitious urban design that blends into the landscape and creates an inspiring working environment.

Concept & market orientation;

heart & soul of the urban master plan

Urban van Aar (Royal HaskoningDHV) & Jacques van Dinteren (Zjak Consult)

Studying major urban developments worldwide, we find that successful projects have a clear and convincing concept in common. A concept strong enough to guide the planning and building process and attractive enough to tempt the market to invest. The question is how to generate such a concept. A second question concerns the role of market studies in this concept generation.

Our studies show that some major projects suffer from delays and lack of sales and even bankruptcy due to the lack of a concept for the envisaged urban development plan. Mistakes we found included:

  • absence of any concept, based on the idea that real estate will always sell;
  • lack of ambition: too much reliance on strategies from the past (“it worked before”);
  • no idea about the preferences of the demand side, no awareness of the competition;
  • a too rigid mono functional concept resulting in a ‘Blue Print’ plan;
  • a concept consisting of marketing slogans, which are expected to tempt investors;
  • failing relations (economic, social, transportation) with the surrounding built environment.

We also found a range of projects with satisfactory sales results but which disrupt the urban environment by creating congestion, environmental problems, vacancies and other issues. All these projects can be assessed as ‘not successful’, i.e. they are not profitable for the city in the long term.

Short term, self-centred approach

It struck us that both developers and governments tend to rely on previous projects, not realising that the market is already saturated or has changed. They continue using the same concept over and over again. “Surprisingly often and for their own reasons, companies put other interests ahead of customers’ interests. (…..) These narrower interests can be characterized as the ‘production concept’, the ‘product concept’, the ‘selling concept’, or simply a ‘short-term, self-centred approach’” (Mike E. Miles et al., Real estate development, 2003). Or put in another way: “Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants, so long as it is black” (Henry Ford).

Another common approach is to opt too quickly for the most obvious opportunity. An initiator has a promising proposal for a new project (creating jobs and international exposure) and the government wants to support him by offering an available piece of land. The project will then be planned in the same spot ignoring the restrictions of the site and the preferences of investors, future companies and inhabitants, as well as ignoring the existing or future competition. This is an example of a very common error in urban master planning: skipping the stage of concept development and neglecting the required study of future developments: demography, economy, transportation, environment, etc. These planning projects ‘jump’ from site surveys to designs and forget to build a proper set of ideas for the place of the project within the city.

A ‘market oriented concept’ or a ‘marketing concept’

Often, marketing tools and slogans are used to motivate an urban development. Think of ‘Eco City‘, ‘Beach City’, ‘Sports City’ and other similar concepts. If these titles for urban development are used to market a good plan, the project might succeed. But if these marketing slogans are just window dressing, many will fail because a sound foundation  is missing. This is the difference between a ‘market oriented concept’ and ‘marketing concept’.  A sound foundation takes into account and integrates market demand and requirements, transportation, utilities, quality standards, etc. Based on such research, the concept should be resilient enough to cope with the ever changing market and preferences of the public and business world.

Our conclusion is that the planning concept – the set of leading ideas for a development – is the essential and key element in the urban planning process. It forms the link between the regional context, the site’s potential, the market and the socio-economic trends on the one hand and the urban design, how it fits into the city and how it will improve urban life on the other.

Market orientation is indispensable

Let’s go back to our central questions: how to generate the concept for a major urban project and what is the role of market survey herein? The key position of the concept in the planning process is illustrated in the diagram below.

diagram-concept

Without compromising other aspects like the environment, policy and feasibility, one can state that market research is an indispensable part of the concept development. Socio-economic situations and trends are studied in order to generate an overview of motivated expectations – such as limitations and chances – for the specific location. The best examples of these market studies produce an in-depth regional and sometimes even (inter)national socio-economic analysis and forecast which will be translated into a demand forecast and programmes which will form the basis for the concept and the master plan. Cooperation between the market specialists, the client and the master planners is important as this interaction helps focus the socio economic studies and identify chances and opportunities at an early stage. Urban planners must be involved in these early stages: market specialists often use the ideas and experience of master planners to find the decisive details, such as the local market for new ideas which have proven successful elsewhere. On the other hand: market specialist still play a role in later stages of the development process to control how the plan will meet market developments and requirements.

Furthermore, one must remember that when it comes to square metres and rate of sales, the market perspective is limited to between five and ten years. However, the market research is much broader and also focuses strongly on establishing the strategic lines of development for the long term. These strategic guidelines in particular have to be translated into the concept. Obviously, if a specific development takes many years, market research must be repeated on a regular basis, say every five years.

Circular process

Creating a concept based on the research performed is a circular rather than a linear process. Contrary to what many people think, a good concept does not fall from the sky. It is a constant interaction between the potential of the location, regional links, technical possibilities, new opportunities and market developments. It is the heart of the planning process and everyone involved contributes.

An important factor in the concept development is the level of ambition defined by the developer or the government. This ambition reveals the willingness to take certain risks (generally within certain financial limits) in order to achieve a higher goal, such as strengthening the image of the city, resilience, sustainability, etc. Sustainability is definitely an ambition that cannot be ignored.

The method briefly described here is (obviously) not limited to new urban developments or real estate projects. Especially in Western countries, changing demographic and economic conditions require transformations of existing urban areas. Taking into account the importance of sustainability and resilience, such product innovations are essential. Due to the complexity of inner city restructuring processes, the importance of good interaction between market research and concept development cannot be underestimated.

Take your time

In short, a good concept is indispensable in urban development (but also in smaller scale real estate projects). Given that interest, it is amazing that the government and real estate developers often economise on these first steps in the development process, even though a strong urban concept and underlying studies are crucial to the ultimate success of a project. It cannot be denied that creating a good foundation for an urban (re)development plan is more time consuming. However, if one takes into account the lifetime of such a development and its envisaged long term success, there’s no other choice.

Site design for Science Parks

Prof. dr. Jacques van Dinteren, Zjak Consult

The importance of location still cannot be denied

Thanks to the multitude of ways to communicate that are available today, it is sometimes said that distance no longer matters and that – by extension – the geographic location of STPs has become much less important. Nothing could be further from the truth. Surveys among businesses located at STPs demonstrate this. For example, for businesses at Dutch STPs, the proximity of a university, the STP’s geographic location and its accessibility on the regional scale level are still the most important factors. The failure to satisfy these kinds of crucial requirements has jeopardised the success of more than one STP. In some cases there had been no critical analysis of the regional conditions, or those in charge were too convinced of the possibilities of being able to make favourable changes to those conditions, such as accessibility and networking opportunities with other businesses and knowledge institutions. Not all environments are conducive settings for an STP.

If a region has good market prospects for the development of an STP, it is still relevant to ask where exactly the best location is. Site selection compares the available alternatives in terms of various characteristics such as accessibility, environment/landscape, the infrastructure in place (the internet backbone, for instance), the space for future expansion and the proximity of interesting companies and knowledge institutions. From the vantage point of sustainable development, it is also logical to look at the possibilities for (creating) multimodal access and good integration in the landscape. Given the trend to consider STPs an important node in an innovation area, site selection specifically has to provide for a careful integration of STPs in that regional knowledge ecosystem.

Market-based site design: key to success

The target group, functional concept, financial feasibility and functional programme of requirements for the development of an STP can be outlined on the basis of market research. Because STPs usually involve a long development period (up to thirty years even), this requires a specific approach: after all it is virtually impossible to sketch out the market prospects for the next twenty years, for example. The market research for an STP must therefore also explicitly contain an analysis of the region that investigates whether all the conditions imposed by such a development are satisfied.

Our experience has taught that as far as the time horizon is concerned, an in-depth, detailed market research is mainly useful for the medium term. Not many property projects are established in this period however, but a market study gives a first (but nothing more) picture of the feasibility in these early years. In this stage it is important that market research also clarifies the target groups and functional concept. The functional concept describes the STP ‘product’ in functional terms. It is the creative idea that lays the foundation for the design. This has to do with the atmosphere/ambience, ways of working, communication possibilities, spatial quality, etc. Testing should demonstrate that the concept appeals to the target group and will incite them to set up business at the STP.

In our approach market analysis does not stand alone. The exchange of ideas and cooperation between market researchers and designers in developing a vision and concept is unusual, but in our view are precisely the keys to success in achieving a successful plan. In our market studies, the designers and colleagues from other relevant disciplines are involved from the very beginning therefore.

Interdisciplinary site design

“The 21st century science park once again regards the built environment as vital, not as an end in itself but as an aid to the process of creativity, interaction and innovation,” John Allen said during one of the IASP conferences. This calls for new types of buildings, high-quality landscaping and the availability of a great range of services. A design that provides for these new requirements will be a significant success factor for the park. On the other hand, more traditional aspects of a design are still needed, such as safety and security, transport and communication infrastructure, parking facilities, and space for expansion.

It is important to point out here that in our opinion, urban planners are just one of the categories of specialists working on the site design for an STP. A 21st century site design for an STP is not resilient unless it is underpinned by a far broader, interdisciplinary team. Along with a focus on environment and sustainability, market research must be brought into the entire development process in order to share ideas – continually – and create a joint vision from a variety of perspectives or disciplines, which include urban planners, landscape architects, traffic consultants and financial experts.

Because the development of an STP is a long-term project (provided there is a good selection strategy), flexibility in the site design is key, as is stability to secure the return on investments. This means keeping as many options for future development open for as long as possible. The design needs to be organised in such a way that opportunities can be combined right up to the last moment. The core team continually tracks developments that affect the plan, tests the foundation for stability and adjusts the plan if necessary.

Attracting the brains: changing the work environment

The importance of an intelligent design that maximises the chances for innovation, ‘serendipity’ and the exchange of ideas is considered increasingly important by developers, businesses, designers and other parties involved. The line of reasoning in this is as follows: if employees enjoy their work, they work better. If they work better, this positively impacts productivity and creativity. This ultimately leads to better results for companies.

Based on this kind of thinking, a work environment can be created that can benefit the STP’s companies in the War for Talent. Not only in order to generate employees, but also to retain them for as long as possible. A work environment must be created that stimulates the process of creativity, interaction and innovation. A survey we conducted among companies located at Dutch STPs indicated that 69% of them agreed or agreed strongly with the statement that given the increasing shortage of highly educated people on the job market, it is essential that STPs offer these workers an optimal work environment. This means extensive facilities (for instance, shops, hair salons, restaurants and cafés, fitness studios) and an attractively designed STP with recreation options (walking and jogging routes, meeting places, etc.).

The interior design of each building on an STP is largely informed by the need for a pleasant and attractive work environment. The current trend is for employees to collaborate in project- and program-managed working formations where they increasingly connect through virtual meeting points rather than in person on the work floor. This trend is revolutionising our idea of a work environment. A work environment is no longer simply a physical site (i.e. an office with meeting rooms); it may include virtual elements (ICT), as well as more abstract elements (corporate culture and shared beliefs on how to do certain things). Each of these elements is equally important in the creation of an effective and productive work environment, and they are all interdependent.

The need for multi-purpose buildings

Many STPs come with laboratories and cleanrooms. These high-tech spaces have sophisticated and expensive equipment which is often shared by multiple users. Shared use of laboratories and/or cleanrooms requires clear communication lines between users so that security can be safeguarded while innovative experiments are being carried out. Whether the buildings in question belong to small start-ups or to large multinational corporations, it is of vital importance that user requirements be discussed and defined upfront. This is an important step towards ensuring that the requirements for the yet-to-be-built laboratories can be met and that clear boundaries be established with regard to what the various users are and aren’t allowed to do. One way to make appropriate decisions for all parties involved is to carefully weigh one’s choices regarding flexibility and the total costs of ownership (TCO). By doing so, one can establish a well-considered program of requirements that can be used to determine which design criteria the various end users expect to be implemented. Once these steps have been taken, the program can then be used as a guideline in monitoring the design, engineering and construction of the new buildings.

Success factors for Science Parks

Prof. dr. Jacques van Dinteren, Zjak Consult

“Many have come to view science parks as a type of ‘silver bullet’ with the capability of dramatically improving a region or community’s ability to compete in the global technology and innovation economy. The reality, however, is far more complex.”

IASP chairman Rick L. Weddle

Innovation is the key word in government plans to strengthen the economic climate. Numerous conditions will have to be created for a successful innovation policy. What cannot be overlooked in this process is the physical environment that businesses need in order to be able to successfully work on new ideas, products and services. These are usually very specific buildings that often require major investments. These could be offices as well as laboratories, clean rooms, small-scale (trial) production units, etc. Buildings that can usually be found at Science and Technology Parks. Science and Technology Parks (STPs) are growing in number and at an increasing pace since the first parks were built in the 1950s. Together with universities and other knowledge institutions, STPs, and especially the businesses established there, play a crucial role in the progress of science and the economy. These specialised business parks have become an essential part of local and regional innovative ecosystems.

The development of STPs is many times more complex than the development of a regular business park. While the emphasis early on was on the physical development, along the way developers started realising that STPs require an entirely different approach. Approximately two decades ago the adage ‘brains, not bricks’ was used to stimulate the process of creativity, interaction and innovation. The importance of this is increasing in fact as people realise that an attractive (physical) work environment contributes to creativity and competitiveness. And just as importantly: it helps attract and retain creative, well-educated employees in the War for Talent.

Nevertheless, the adage ‘brains, not bricks’ did not alter the fact that the developed environment is still of crucial importance. The development of an STP calls now more than ever for a well-grounded integrated plan on the area level. It also requires clear ideas for the park management, financing, guidelines for buildings, property financing, etc.

Know the success factors

An analysis of the papers published during IASP conferences over the past years clearly highlights the success factors in setting up an STP. A distinction can be made here between the regional factors (on which the developer often has little or no influence) and the factors that concern the STP itself.

Important regional factors or conditions are:

  • A well-functioning network of innovative/creative businesses and institutions

There must be a culture of intellectual interaction, creativity and entrepreneurship in the region. Strong, specializing economies with a good regional or local innovative ecosystem form a sound basis for successful STPs.

  • A well-functioning job market of knowledge workers

Technology and knowledge companies are even more dependent than other economic sectors on well-educated, creative workers. This condition is therefore essential. It is also important that the region be able to attract and retain these knowledge workers.

  • An attractive residential and living environment

An attractive residential and living environment is an essential condition for attracting highly educated people and retaining knowledge workers already living in the area.

  • The presence of tertiary education, universities and other knowledge institutions

In addition to the presence of these knowledge institutions, a large innovative company can also play a key role. Universities or other knowledge institutions do not necessarily need to be in the immediate vicinity of the STP, though this does stimulate informal contacts.

  • Available sources of financing

Innovative companies often need a long development period for their products. This requires, for example, specific financial arrangements, provided by cooperating regional banks, as well as access to other sources of financing, such as innovation funds.

The key factors for success for the science park itself are:

  • Embedding

The development of an STP must be explicitly embedded in a regional or local innovation strategy to promote economic development.

  • Market, vision and strategy

The development must be based on a thorough market survey. Working from this basis, the target group can be clearly delineated and a distinctive concept can be conceived of. This is set down in a clear vision and a long-term strategy for attaining the goals that have been formulated. It is precisely because a specific target group is chosen that the operating estimate takes a much longer time than for a regular development. Proposals for eliminating weak features of the regional economy are also important.

  • Strong management

A science park distinguishes itself from a regular business park by the fact that the contacts do not stop once the business moves in, but in fact just begin at that point. A science park therefore has professional management. The management is responsible for high-quality housing and the concrete range of facilities on offer, such as laboratories, clean rooms, testing facilities, etc. At some STPs a great deal of attention is devoted to the set-up and management of incubator centres, in the thinking that this is where the future ‘residents’ of the park will be coming from. Leasing the buildings helps management to control the park and guarantees a future proof development.

  • Broad package of services

The management ensures that the businesses located in the park can function optimally by offering a very broad package of services. This can include access to sources of financing, management and marketing advice, development of innovation strategies and the fostering of contact between entrepreneurs. The organisation of seminars, training, informal meetings, etc, is also important. Events, concerts, exhibitions and happenings are organised at some parks, as a way of contributing to a creative environment.

  • Clear choice of target group

A clear choice must be made for a particular target group. This ensures that the site has a clear profile. The management is responsible for a clear admission strategy and must stick to this. In addition to the target group, there must be a possibility for complementary businesses to take up residence as well, such as consultancy firms and other specific (technical) service providers.

  • A strong urban planning concept

On the level of the science park itself, a work environment that stimulates creativity and innovation is required. The services mentioned earlier play a role in this. The presence of consumer amenities, the architecture and the landscaping are also factors. There must be an overall urban planning concept and a coordinating urban planner who supervises the architecture of the individual buildings. In view of the long-term planning, flexibility in the concept is of great importance. Sustainability plays a significant role in all plans these days.

  • A unique, distinctive identity

After making a clear choice in terms of target group and property concept, the management and stakeholders must subsequently ensure that the science park has a clear identity. This identity is fleshed out in, for instance, the name and logo and must be distinctive and consistently expressed externally by all the parties involved.

  • Facilitating role for the government

There is usually a facilitating role reserved for the local government. The local government’s commitment is important and the municipality (in cooperation with other government agencies) can play a role in attracting businesses and improving national and international accessibility. Government subsidies will often be necessary, certainly in the starting phase. Government loans are also attractive because the term of these loans is often longer than those provided by financial institutions.

Campus to City: Urban Design for Universities

Kees Christiaanse, KCAP

 

The ‘campus’ is a phenomenon of increasing relevance to modern urban planning. In Europe, universities are reconsidering their position in society and taking on extensive reorganisations and expansions of their physical structures. e postwar university campus as an isolated community of scholars is subject to thorough revision. In Asia, on the other hand, new campus-style universities are shooting up like mushrooms. Global compa- nies build campus-style factory sites for their international headquarters or for their research-and-development departments. e controversy over the desirability of openness and interaction with the urban environment versus the increasing popularity of the ‘gated community’ and restricted access, demonstrates the need for a radical debate on the shape and the position of the campus in relationship to its context.

An interesting archetype for the relationship between the university and the city is Cambridge University in Great Britain. Here, cloister-like ‘col- leges’ in the shape of more or less closed compounds surrounding an inner courtyard are scattered in clusters all over the city. Although Cambridge is one of the oldest universities in the world, this constellation may well be highly relevant to the present search for the ideal accommodation of today’s university: an ‘interconnected deconcentration’ of specialised clus- ters, which together constitute a network of knowledge and individually function as catalysts for their immediate surroundings. is complemen- tary symbiosis of the ivory tower and everyday life is expressed in various ways: in the architecture of the buildings, in the dress code and lifestyle of the Cambridge students and in the famous map of Cambridge pubs, which serves as a diagram of social activity.

Size Matters

In Cambridge, the intimate relationship between ‘town and gown’ did not result from a deliberate avoidance of functional segregation. It developed from the limited size of the historical city, from its spatial structures, which are based on walking distances, and from the limited scale and complexity of teaching and research at that time. Likewise in Leyden, home of the old- est university of the Netherlands, virtually all the university buildings and even the private residences of the professors were originally situated along a single canal, the so-called Rapenburg.

e increase in scale which led to our contemporary problems concern- ing functional and social segregation and mobility did not begin until the second half of the nineteenth century. In the nineteenth century, the ram- parts surrounding European cities were demolished. Under the in uence of the industrial revolution and the emergence of social awareness, large urban institutions were founded. In Zurich, the train station and the polytechnic school designed by architect Gottfried Semper were built on the edge of the city in the area of the former ramparts.

From an ideological point of view, these interventions were equivalent to the creation of a postwar campus in the 1960s: both involve the outplace- ment of huge monofunctional entities to an isolated location beyond the city limits, as can be seen in a late nineteenth-century map of Zurich. Con- trary to the original intentions, however, Zurich’s ETH Zentrum and the adjacent University are now being praised for their inner-city locations and their close interactions with the city. As a matter of fact, the city caught up with the university and eventually integrated it into the urban spatial struc- ture. Nowadays, an implicit aim of ETH Zurich’s Science City project is to embed the ETH even further and to reconciliate it with its context, while simultaneously preserving a certain autonomous identity.

Islands of Quiet

In a way, this is also what happened to the postwar university campus of the 1960s. e EPF in Lausanne is a prime example of such an isolated extra-municipal campus. In its structuralist urban planning concept, the various faculties, lecture halls and laboratories are arranged like modules along a central spine. In the middle of the spine is an ‘agora’ which provides a wide range of collective facilities. is geometrical shape, pressed into the sloping banks of Lake Geneva, perfectly re ects the idea of a knowledge centre in the midst of nature, geared to provide a maximum of quietness and concentration.

However attractive and pure this idea may seem, thirty years after its widespread implementation it is evident that this type of university campus does not lead to a desirable sociocultural and urban environment. It is hampered by its isolated location, its monofunctional disposition and its remoteness from mixed urban structures. Revisions generally aim at adding living quarters for students and sta , providing high-quality public trans- port and attracting commercial and cultural functions, such as spin-o enterprises, shops and a library or a theatre, which are also open to the in- habitants of the surrounding suburbs.

These suburbs are in fact the selfsame city which, like nineteenth-century urban expansions, has encircled and swallowed the university. Despite their aws, the suburbs show the modern city’s true appearance, which has virtu- ally the same shape all over the world. is is where the greater part of the population lives and a major part of economic production takes place.

If the campus is not surrounded by suburbs, adding non-university func- tions to encourage functional diversity and social interaction is likely to increase the risk of further isolation. e campus of Twente University in the Netherlands, for example, o ers such a complete range of amenities for living, working, shopping and leisure and is so far removed from the city, that it is turning into an autonomous compound with all the characteristics of a gated community or an Asian campus.

In Silicon Valley, however, no city had formerly existed to catch up with the university. Here the spin-o activities around Stanford University gen- erated such a boost that it made an Edge City expand into a veritable urban conglomeration, which in turn now determines the socioeconomic life of an entire region.

Inner-city Campus

However, the ideal model in the head of many planners for the campus revisions that are taking place all over Europe is not a university of deconcentrated clusters of various sizes, positions and characteristics, reconciled with the city on the scale of polycentric conurbations. Their ideal is the illusion of the inner-city campus within walking distance from the city, as it is embodied in the Technical University of Berlin (TU), Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, or the London School of Economics (LSE).

The TU Berlin is a mono-functional campus, whose mono-functionality is compensated for by its central position in the middle of the city. Situated on the interface between a city park, the Tiergarten, and the nineteenth- century district of Charlottenburg, the TU Berlin enjoys the advantages of a traditional campus as well as the perks of a university that blends in with the city. Due to the ravages of World War II, there is still su cient space for expansion.

In Cambridge, Massachusetts, the opposite is true. Here, the heart of this former suburb now consists of Harvard Yard and Harvard Square, the old- est parts of Harvard University, and the development of the city has kept up with the growth of the university. It is a convincing example of a harmonious exchange between university and city, with central functions (Harvard Square), a city park (Harvard Yard) and a university centre at its heart. Our third example, the LSE in London, occupies a historical city district. It consists of a network of alleys and squares and a collection of large and small, old and new buildings that are placed within the original allocation pattern. Over the years, premises have been joined together, enlarged or replaced. e result is a university nestling in the city district as if by mimicry. e formidable urban qualities of such an unplanned university raise the question as to whether we should actually design universities at all, or perhaps rather allow them to infiltrate and transform a city district through improvisation and embroidering existing structures.

Campus Revisited

While the postwar university campus of the 1960s is presently undergoing an identity crisis and major revision in Europe, this is certainly not the case in other parts of the world, as recent developments in Asia indicate. In many Asian countries the extra-municipal, monofunctional campus of quietness and concentration is not perceived as a problem, but as a symbol of progress (and social control). e University City Guangzhou in China even consists of a ‘city of campuses’. Here, about ten university campuses form a conglomeration where students and sta virtually spend their lives, well provided for by all kinds of infrastructure.

Global enterprises have also adopted the campus as a blueprint for their international headquarters or their research-and-development departments. Companies like Microsoft, Novartis, Volkswagen, Benetton, Adidas and Nike each have their own way of using the campus concept as a leitmotif.

In reaction to severe criticism of Nike’s deployment of child labour in sweatshops in low-wage countries, the company made a radical turn to- wards a policy of sustainable production techniques and social responsibil- ity. One of the new techniques allows for sneakers to be recycled as ground material for oor-coverings in gyms. In Guangzhou, Nike developed Shoe- City, a production campus inspired by the garden cities built by philan- thropic entrepreneurs in the nineteenth century, where employees can nd a ordable housing and send their children to school. By comparison, the

50 Nike World Campus in Beaverton, Oregon, is a less inspiring project. Nike World Campus in Beaverton, Oregon, is a less inspiring project. Instead of using a former industrial area to build a headquarters within walk- ing distance of the city centre, like Benetton did in Italy, Beaverton Campus is a quintessential gated community, with white, Richard Meier-like buildings that look like ships run aground in the green belt. Instead of offering a multiple network of footpaths and bicycle tracks within an urban environment, the area is only accessible by car. e layout of the campus is de ned by parking lots rather than by jogging tracks.

Far more interesting are the developments of Benetton in Treviso and of VW in Wolfsburg. Both projects inject new life into a run-down city centre by generating interaction with new functional clusters.1

Catalytic Enclaves

In many urban and architectural situations, redeveloping existing structures leads to more interesting results than building virginal new premises. The archetype of a university working as an instrument of revitalisation for derelict industrial sites is the project Potteries ink-belt by Cedric Price, which was never built. In this concept, the faculties, laboratories, lecture halls and student dormitories are situated far apart in disused ceramic fac- tories, which are connected by a railway system originally built for trans- porting raw materials and ceramics. Lectures were to be given in the trains while students and sta commuted between the various locations.

is utopia, which reverberates in projects like IBA-Emscherpark in Germany, is an early version of the concept that universities can serve as networks of dispersed concentrations which activate weaker areas. It also tallies with the idea that tra c infrastructure can structuralise the econom- ics of knowledge. In accordance with this idea, the universities and colleges of Rotterdam have arranged themselves along an ‘axis of knowledge’, the subway which traverses the city. e faculties are concentrated around three subway stations. is stimulates urban development in the areas, as stu- dents are the social group most willing to engage in urban activities.

One of the most radical and impressive examples of a university that stimulates urban activity is Bilgi University in Istanbul, Turkey. e institu- tion buys and restores former industrial buildings in less developed areas of the city in order to provide adequate and a ordable premises for its own growing activities, while at the same time giving a huge socioeconomic boost to the surrounding city quarters. Most notably the Santral project, involving a former power station on the peninsula at the source of the Golden Horn, demonstrates a degree of commitment and ambition com- parable to the zeal of Zeche Zollverein in Essen, Germany. e peninsula is being transformed into a city park at the Golden Horn. In this park, the power station is converted to accommodate the main building of the uni- versity. Such a catalytic enclave creating a network across the city re ects not only the spirit of Cedric Price’s Potteries ink-belt, but also that of the time-honoured Cambridge colleges.

Science City, ETH Zurich

The Hönggerberg campus of the ETH in Zurich is a standard university complex from the 1960s, when the creation of large-scale universities led to expansion outside the city. e campus was built as an isolated enclave on a green hill. In the 1960s, it still stood outside the city; now it is a mono- functional island in the middle of the archipelago formed by the Zurich agglomeration. Just as the city has evolved into an agglomeration, the atomisation of the university has resulted in its development into an agglomeration within the city or, to put it more positively, the university has become interwoven with the city despite separation and specialisation. Proceeding from this interpretation, we can try to bring the suburban cam- pus into contact with surrounding city districts, generating a communal basis capable of supporting new activities. A basis for commercial functions like shops, cafés and restaurants is achieved by a densification of the campus with, alongside additional university buildings, residential buildings where live/work combinations and spin-o business activities are possible as well as complementary amenities like a primary school. anks to lecture halls and foyers also being used for events and community activities, there is a sociocultural exchange with the city. While it is true that no inner-city urbanity will evolve here, it does provide fertile ground for a gradual development towards a well-balanced environmental quality. is attempt at an integration of city and university constitutes the true significance of the term ‘Science City’.

Science Park Amsterdam

While Science City in Zurich was a pre-existing campus on a beautiful site, the Science Park planned for Amsterdam’s Watergraafsmeer, originally a polder, is an urban bathtub. Surrounded by water and dikes, a railway yard and Amsterdam’s orbital motorway – all the elements of contemporary, closed spatial systems – it is self-contained. It is of little consequence for the rest of the city whether a residential district, an industrial area, a quarantine terrain or a university campus is located here. is shocking conclusion is alas no longer unusual. It applies to most suburban enclaves, except that these are generally not perceived as being so extreme because they have softer edges. On the one hand, there is something attractive about the idea that the city can consist of interchangeable ‘patches’; on the other hand, the insularity, concentrated access and monofunctionality of such areas leads to a lack of social control, uneven daytime and nighttime rhythms, a lack of multiple relationships, an increase in mobility – in short to primitive, one- dimensional systems.

In this area, which is only accessible at three points, the Science Park, the scienti c cluster of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), is being developed. Construction zones run from east to west, interspersed with wide bands of green. e construction zones are subject to a building code that is charac- terised by a labyrinthine structure that establishes a system of successive public and semi-public spaces. Situating communal amenities at junctions fosters concentrations of public activity. Instead of standing like bonbons on the grass, the buildings ‘fold’ themselves around the courtyards and in- terweave with adjacent buildings. It is not the form of the actual buildings that dominates, but the system of spaces between the buildings: this ‘anti- hierarchical network’ reflects the idea of ‘university’. e system for non- motorized tra c, meandering through the courtyards and atria like a net- work of rabbit runs, can expand and contract, depending on the intensity of use and the day-and-night rhythm. e public green strips also serve as a logistical zone for goods deliveries and as a cable route, where fibre-optic cables, nitrogen pipes or central heating for the blocks can be laid, as desired. Thus all the laboratories enjoy flexible access to the technical infrastructure.

Housing, cafés and restaurants, a public transport facility, a hotel, and sports facilities will also be developed in the Science Park. But unlike Sci- ence City, these functions do not mix. Within the polder bathtub they form a miniature archipelago of monofunctional islands, because the faculty buildings and laboratories produce emissions and must be able to expand and contract. is situation is illustrative of the dilemma between the desire for functional interaction and the imperative of programmatic criteria.

With this design concept we try to provide an instrument to enable non- mixable entities in the urban archipelago to function in complementary ways, by designing their interactive and relational structures rather than forcing an unfortunate integration.